- Integrative Arts 10
- A Media Time Line
- "You never know when an old calendar might come
- Sure, it's not 1985 right now, but who knows what
tomorrow will bring?"
- This Media Time Line compilation is to give you a
historical perspective of the topics covered in class.
3500: In Sumer. pictographs of accounts written on clay
2600: Scribes employed in Egypt.
2400: In India, engraved seals identify the writer.
2200: Date of oldest existing document written on
1500: Phoenician alphabet.
1400: Oldest record of writing in China, on bones.
1270: Syrian scholar compiles an encyclopedia.
900: China has an organized postal service for government
775: Greeks develop a phonetic alphabet, written from
left to right.
530: In Greece, a library.
525-456 Aeschylus authors 90 plays, of which, 7 still
exist most notably, Agamemnon
- 500: Greek version of the telegraph: trumpets, drums,
shouting, beacon fires, smoke signals, mirrors.
500: Persia has a form of pony express.
500: Chinese scholars write on bamboo with reeds dipped
450-385 Aristophanes authors many comedies, 11 are still
in existence. Used satire as his main weapon against war.
Considered to be the father of Burlesque.
- 400: Chinese write on silk as well as wood, bamboo.
350: Aristotle (384-322) writes the Poetics - analysis of
200: Books written on parchment and vellum.
59: Julius Caesar orders postings of Acta Diurna.
100: Roman couriers carry government mail across the
105: T'sai Lun invents paper.
175: Chinese classics are carved in stone which will
later be used for rubbings.
180: In China, an elementary Zoetrope.
250: Paper use spreads to central Asia.
350: In Egypt, parchment book of Psalms bound in wood
450: Ink on seals is stamped on paper in China. This is
600: Books printed in China.
765: Picture books printed in Japan.
875: Amazed travelers to China see toilet paper.
950: Paper use spreads west to Spain.
950: Folded books appear in China in place of rolls.
950: Bored women in a Chinese harem invent playing cards.
- 1000: Mayas in Yucatan, Mexico, make writing paper from
1035: Japanese use waste paper to make new paper.
1049: Pi Sheng fabricates movable type, using clay.
1116: Chinese sew pages to make stitched books.
1147: Crusader taken prisoner returns with papermaking
art, according to a legend.
1200: European monasteries communicate by letter system.
1200: University of Paris starts messenger service.
1241: In Korea, metal type.
1282: In Italy, watermarks are added to paper.
1298: Marco Polo describes use of paper money in China.
1300: Wooden type found in central Asia.
1305: Taxis family begins private postal service in
1309: Paper is used in England.
1392: Koreans have a type foundry to produce bronze
1423: Europeans begin Chinese method of block printing.
1450: A few newsletters begin circulating in Europe.
1451: Johnannes Gutenberg uses a press to print an old
1452: Metal plates are used in printing.
1453: Gutenberg prints the 42-line Bible.
1464: King of France establishes postal system.
1490: Printing of books on paper becomes more common in
1495: A paper mill is established in England.
- 1500: 16th century - Painters and engravers use a camera
obscura investigated by Leonardo Da Vinci (It. 1452
1500: Arithmetic + and - symbols are used in Europe.
1500: By now approximately 35,000 books have been
printed, some 10 million copies.
- 1500: commedia dell'arte started in 16th century Italy.
Comedy Troupe of character actors improvise dialogue over
a standardized plot. Used costume and developed many
character types still familliar to us today.
- 1500: Punch and Judy - 16th century puppet show derrived
from stock characters of commedia dell'arte. Spread
across western civilization in the 17th - 19th centuries.
Plot usually involves Punch besting the devil.
1520: Spectacles balance on the noses of Europe's
1533: A postmaster in England.
1545: Garamond designs his typeface.
1550: Wallpaper brought to Europe from China by traders.
1560: In Italy, the portable camera obscura allows
precise tracing of an image.
1560: Legalized, regulated private postal systems grow in
- 1564-1616 Shakespeare Writes his Plays. Cornerstone of
all western drama and comedy. Command of the language and
characterization are keys concepts to understanding his
1565: The pencil.
1609: First regularly published newspaper appears in
1627: France introduces registered mail.
1639: First printing press in the American colonies.
1640: Kirchner, a German Jesuit, builds a magic lantern.
1689: Newspapers are printed, at first as unfolded
1698: Public library opens in Charleston, SC
- 1704: A newspaper in Boston prints advertising.
1710: German engraver Le Blon develops three-color
1714: Henry Mill receives patent in England for a
1719: Reaumur proposes using wood to make paper.
1725: Scottish printer develops stereotyping system.
1727: Schulze begins science of photochemistry.
1732: In Philadelphia, Ben Franklin starts a circulating
1733 - 1969 Industrial Revolution- Mechanization of
Industy leads to increase in leisure time, disposable
income, urbanization. The era comes to an end with it's
crowning acheivement, the Apollo Program landing
Americans on the moon in 1969 kicking off the computer
- 1755: Regular mail ship runs between England and the
1770: The eraser.
1774: Swedish chemist invents a future paper whitener.
1775: Continental Congress authorizes Post Office; Ben
Franklin first Postmaster General.
1777: Neo-classicism - Post colonial era revival of Greek
classicism with several artistic liberties and certain
austerities. Lead to the concept of the Well-Made play
and Greek influenced art and architecture. Ie. Southern
plantation homes and Washington D.C. in general.
- 1780: Steel pen points begin to replace quill feathers.
1785: Stagecoaches carry the mail between towns in U.S.
1790: In England the hydraulic press is invented.
1792: Mechanical semaphore signaler built in France.
1792: In Britain, postal money orders.
1794: First letter carriers appear on American city
1794: Panorama, forerunner of movie theaters, opens.
1794: Signaling system connects Paris and Lille.
1798: Senefelder in Germany invents lithography.
- 1800: Letter takes 20 days to reach Savannah from
1804: In Germany, lithography is invented.
1807: Camera lucida improves image tracing.
1808: Turri of Italy builds a typewriter for a blind
1810: An electro-chemical telegraph is constructed in
1810: Postal services consolidated under uniform private
1814: In England, a steam-powered rotary press prints The
1816: Niépce captures image with 8-hour exposure.
1818: In Sweden, Berzelius isolates selenium; its
electric conductivity reacts to light.
1819: Invention of what would come to be known as
Baseball socializes the masses and gives an immagrant
nation "the Great American Past-time".
- 1819: Napier builds a rotary printing press.
- 1820: Arithmometer, forerunner of the calculator.
1821: In England, Wheatstone reproduces sound.
1823: Babbage builds a section of a calculating machine.
1823: In England, Ronalds builds a telegraph in his
garden; no one is interested.
1825: The Thaumatrope, devised by Dr. John Ayrton Paris
(GB), blurs the images on two sides of a round card into
a single image when spun by an attached string - this
device displays the phenomenon called "Persistence
1827: Niépce makes a true photograph.
1827: In London, Wheatstone constructs a microphone.
1829: Daguerre joins Niépce to pursue photographic
1829: Burt gets the first U.S. patent for a typewriter.
1832: Phenakistoscope in Belgium and Stroboscope in
Austria point to motion
1833: A penny buys a New York newspaper, opening a mass
1833: Joseph Plateau (Belg., 1801- 83) first writes about
the phenomenon of persistence of vision
1833: In Germany, a telegraph running nearly two miles.
1834: Babbage conceives the analytical engine, forerunner
of the computer.
1935: Bennett publishes the first of his penny press
1837: Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre (Fr., 1789- 1851)
invents the daguerreotype, which fixes images on a
silver-covered copper plate
1837: Wheatstone and Cooke patent an electric telegraph
1837: Morse exhibits an electric telegraph in the U.S.
1837: Pitman publishes a book on shorthand in England.
1837: Daguerre cuts photo exposure time to 20 minutes.
1838: In England, Wheatstone's Stereoscope shows pictures
1838: Morse exhibits an electric telegraph in the U.S.
1838: Daguerre-Niépce method begins photography craze.
1839: Fox Talbot in England produces photographs.
1839: In Russia, Jacobi invents electrotyping, the
duplicating of printing plates.
1839: Electricity runs a printing press.
1839: Fox Talbot in England prints photographs from
1840s-1920s Minstrel Shows arise in America
as antecedent to variety show.
1841: The advertising agency is born.
1842: Illustrated London News appears.
1842: Another use for paper: the Christmas card.
1843: In the U.S., the photographic enlarger.
1843: Ada, Lady Lovelace publishes her Notes explaining a
1844: Morse's telegraph connects Washington and
1845: Postal reform bill lowers rates and regulates
domestic and international service.
1845: English Channel cable.
1845: The typewriter ribbon.
1847: A Philadelphia newspaper rolls off a rotary
1847: First use of telegraph as business tool.
1847: In England, Bakewell constructs a "copying
1848: Forerunner of the Associated Press is founded in
1849: The photographic slide.
1851: The Erie railroad depends on the telegraph.
1851: Cable is laid across the English Channel.
1851: In England, Talbot takes a flash photograph at
1/100,000 second exposure.
1852: Postage stamps are widely used.
1853: Envelopes made by paper folding machine.
1854: Telegraph used in Crimean War.
1854: Bourseul in France builds an experimental
1854: Curved stereotype plate obviates column rules; wide
1856: Machine folds newspapers, paper for books.
1857: A machine to set type is demonstrated.
1857: In France, Scott's phonautograph is a forerunner of
1858: First effort at transatlantic telegraph service
1858: Eraser is fitted to the end of a pencil.
1858: An aerial photograph is taken.
1859: Camera gets a wide-angled lens.
- 1860s-1940s American Burlesque Shows
1861: Telegraph brings Pony Express to an abrupt end.
1861: Oliver Wendell Holmes invents stereoscope.
1862: In Italy, Caselli sends a drawing over a wire.
1862: in U.S., paper money.
1863: Large U.S. cities get free home delivery of mail.
1864: In Virginia, wireless electromagnetic waves are
transmitted 14 miles.
1865: Atlantic cable ties Europe and U.S. for instant
1865 - 1877 Southern States under reconstruction after
- 1866: Western Union dominates U.S. wires.
1868: Writing machine is called a
"Type-Writer"; so is the typist.
1869: Carbon paper is invented.
1869: Color photography, using the subtractive method.
1869: From Austria, postcards.
1870s-1940s Vaudeville and Variety Shows
1871: Halftone process allows newspaper printing of
1872: Simultaneous transmission from both ends of a
1873: U.S. postcard debuts; costs one penny.
1873: Illustrated daily newspaper appears in New York.
1873: Maxwell publishes theory of radio waves. 1873:
First color photographs.
1873: Typewriters get the QWERTY pseudo-scientific
1873: In Ireland, May uses selenium to send a signal
through the Atlantic cable.
1873 Eadweard James Muybridge (GB, 1830 1904)
contrives a photographic apparatus to analyze the motion
of a trotting horse
1874: Universal Postal Union formed.
1875: Edison invents the mimeograph.
1875: In the U.S., Carey designs a selenium mosaic to
transmit a picture.
1876: Bell invents the telephone.
1877: In France, Charles Cros invents a phonograph.
1877: In America, Edison also invents a phonograph, the
"Talking Machine" - Marketed as the Phonograph
in the 1890s as a business tool
1878: Muybridge publishes his sequences of stop-action
photographs of horses, taken by setting up a battery of
twelve (later expanded to twenty-four, then forty-eight)
1878: Cathode ray tube is invented by Crookes, English
1878: The dynamic microphone is invented in the U.S. and
1878: Telephone directories are issued.
1878: Full page newspaper ads.
1878: In France, praxinoscope, an optical toy, a step
1878: Hughes invents the microphone.
1878: Dry-plate photography.
1878 Thomas Alva Edison (US, 1847 1931) invents
1879: Benday process aids newspaper production of maps,
1879 Photographers use gelatin plates sensitized with
bromide of silver
1879: Ferrier works on roll film and coats a flexible
gelatin strip with a gelatin-bromide emulsion
1879: Muybridge's Zoogyroscope (an improved Zoetrope)
reconstitutes motion captured by his stop-action
- 1880: First photos in newspapers, using halftones.
1880: Edison invents the electric light.
1880: Business offices begin to look modern.
1881: Tony Pastor- "Father of Vaudeville" opens
1882: In England, the first Wirephotos.
1883: Edison stumbles onto "Edison effect";
basis of broadcast tubes.
1884: In Germany, Nipkow scanning disc, early version of
1884: People can now make long distance phone calls.
1884: Electric tabulator is introduced.
1885: Dictating machines are bought for offices. 1885:
Eastman makes coated photo printing paper.
1885: Trains are delivering newspapers daily.
1885: Keith and Albee establish Vaudeville Houses in
Philadelphia and Boston
1886: Graphophone's wax cylinder and sapphire stylus
1887: Celluloid film; it will replace glass plate
1887: Berliner gets music from a flat disc stamped out by
1888: "Kodak" box camera makes picture taking
1888: Heinrich Hertz proves the existence of radio waves.
1888: The coin-operated public telephone.
1888: Edison's phonograph is manufactured for sale to the
1888 Edison and William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (US, 1860
1937) build an optical cylindrical phonograph
1889 George Eastman (US, 1854 1932) develops and
markets flexible cellulose nitrate roll film
1889: Edison and Dickson order batches of film from
Eastman and perforate the strips
1889: Herman Hollerith counts the population with punch
1889: Strowger, Kansas City undertaker, invents automatic
1890: Martin Beck takes city culture to the country in
first touring Vaudeville Show
1890: A.B. Dick markets the mimeograph.
1890: Typewriters are in common use in offices. 1890: In
England, Friese-Greene builds the kinematograph camera
1890: In France, Branly's coherer conducts radio waves.
1891: Georges Demeny (Fr., 1850 1917) invents the
Phonoscope, designed to resynthesize lip movement for
Edison and Dickson patent a motion-picture camera
(Kinetograph) and an individual viewing machine
1891: Large press prints and folds 90,000 4-page papers
1891: Telephoto lens is attached to the camera.
1891: Edison's assistant, Dickson, builds the Kinetograph
motion picture camera.
1892: Edison and Dickson invent the peep-show
1892 Edison, Dickson, and Eugene Lauste (Fr., 1856
1935) work on the Kinetophone. an early combination
kinetoscope and phonograph
1892: Leon Bouly (Fr., 1872, 1932,) patents the
Cinematographe, a camera that both analyzes and
1892: 4-color rotary press.
1893: Dickson builds a motion picture studio in New
1893: Edison's Black Maria, the world's first
motion-picture studio, is built
Addressograph joins the office machinery.
1894: Marconi invents wireless telegraphy.
1894: Box making machines give impetus to packaging
1894: Berliner's flat phonograph disc competes with the
1895: Louis Lumiere invents a new feed mechanism; his
chief engineer, Charles Moisson, is asked to build the
prototype of a machine to shoot, print, and project
1895: France's Lumiere brothers build a portable movie
1895: Paris audience sees movies projected.
1895: Dial telephones go into Milwaukee's city hall.
1896: Underwood model permits typists to see what they
1896: Electric power is used to run a paper mill. 1896:
In Britain, the motion picture projector is manufactured.
1896: X-ray photography.
1896: First Vitascope screening for a paying audience at
Koster 5c Bial's Music Hall, New York
1896: Auguste Baron (Fr., 1855 1938) invents a
process for making sound pictures
1896: Leon Gaumont (Fr., i864 I946) comes out with
his 60-mm Demeny
1896: Biograph camera built - Screening of first Biograph
1896: Georges Melies (Fr., 1861 1918) shoots his
first films, including The Vanishing Lady
1897: A 60mm Joly-Normandin projector causes a fire,
1897: Melies builds a studio at Montreuil-sous-Bois
1897: Secretary of Designer and film-maker Leon Gaumont,
Alice Guy, begins work on her films
1897: J Stuart Blackton and Albert E. Smith form the
1897: General Electric creates a publicity department.
1898: Photographs taken by artificial light.
1898: Edison begins the "War of the Patents"
with other film makers in America
1898: US Battleship Maine blows up in Havana harbor,
triggering the Spanish-American War and inspiring the
first historical reconstruction films
1898: Multiple-shot (Trick) films by Melies and Robert
1898: New York State passes a law against misleading
1899: The loudspeaker.
1899: Sound is recorded magnetically by Poulsen of
1899: American Marconi Company incorporated; forerunner
1899 Melies releases The Dreyfus Affair
1899: Newsreel-type films of action, both live and
reenacted, shot of Transvaal during the Boer War 1900 The
Player Piano allows people across the country to hear the
- 1900: Kodak Brownie makes photography cheaper and
1900: Pupin's loading coil reduces telephone voice
1901: Sale of phonograph disc made of hard resinous
1901: First electric typewriter, the Blickensderfer.
1901: Guglielmo Marconi "Father of Radio"
develops the wireless telegraph and transmits message in
Morse code across the Atlantic. Nobel prize winner in
1902: Etched zinc engravings start to replace hand-cut
1902: U.S. Navy installs radio telephones aboard ships.
1902: Photoelectric scanning can send and receive a
1902: Trans-Pacific telephone cable connects Canada and
1902: Melies's A Trip to the Moon
1903: Porter's The Great Train Robbery creates demand for
1903: Technical improvements in radio, telegraph,
phonograph, movies and printing.
1903: London Daily Mirror illustrates only with
1904: A telephone answering machine is invented.
1904: Fleming invents the diode to improve radio
1904: Offset lithography becomes a commercial reality.
1904: A photograph is transmitted by wire in Germany.
1904: Hine photographs America's underclass.
1904: The comic book.
1904 Newsreel-type films of action, both live and
reconstructed, during the Russo-Japanese War
Chase films increasingly popular
1904: The double-sided phonograph disc.
1905: Stencil coloring of films begins
1905: Gaumont Studios built in Paris
1905: Rescued by Rover by Cecil Hepworth (GB, i873
1905: First Italian fiction film, La Presa di Roma, by
Filoteo Alberini (It., I86$ I937)
1905: In Pittsburgh the first nickelodeon opens.
1905: Photography, printing, and post combine in the
year's craze, picture postcards.
1905: In France, Pathe colors black and white films by
1905: The juke box; 24 choices.
1906: Smith patents Kinemacolor, a two-color filmmaking
1906: Oskar Messter (Ger., i866 i9p3) develops a
system for making sound films
1906: Development of Gaumont's Chronophone 1906: The
Vitagraph Company of America opens a new studio in
Brooklyn; the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company
opens a West Coast office in Los Angeles
1906: Blackton's Humorous Phases of Funny Faces
1906: In Britain, new process colors books cheaply.
1906: A program of voice and music is broadcast in the
1906: Lee de Forest invents the three-element vacuum
1906: Dunwoody and Pickard build a
1906: An animated cartoon film is produced.
1906: An experimental sound-on-film motion picture.
1906: Strowger invents automatic dial telephone
1907: Bell and Howell develop a film projection system.
1907: Lumiere brothers invent still color photography
1907: DeForest begins regular radio music broadcasts.
1907: In Russia, Rosing develops theory of television.
1908: In U.S., Smith introduces true color motion
1909: Radio distress signal saves 1,700 lives after ships
1909: First broadcast talk; the subject: women's
- 1911: Efforts are made to bring sound to motion pictures.
1911: Rotogravure aids magazine production of photos.
1912: U.S. passes law to control radio stations.
1912: Motorized movie cameras replace hand cranks.
- 1912: Armstrong perfects audion tube allowing for
1912: Feedback and heterodyne systems usher in modern
1912: Victor, Colombia and Edison were the only record
disk manufacturers, by 1919 there were almost 200
companies with a combined output of 2 Million records, by
1921 100 million records had been sold
1913: The portable phonograph is manufactured.
1913: Type composing machines roll out of the factory.
1914: Dance crazes such as the "Grizzly Bear",
"Fox Trot", and "the Tango" sweep
1914-1918 World War I rages in Europe. Amateur radio
enthusiasts broadcast voice and music.
1914: A better triode vacuum tube improves radio
1914: Radio message is sent to an airplane.
1914: In Germany, the 35mm still camera, a Leica.
1914: In the U.S., Goddard begins rocket experiments.
1914: First transcontinental telephone call.
1915: Wireless radio service connects U.S. and Japan.
1915: Radio-telephone carries speech across the Atlantic.
1915: Birth of a Nation sets new movie standards.
1915: The electric loudspeaker.
1916: David Sarnoff envisions radio as "a household
1916: Cameras get optical rangefinders.
1916: Radios get tuners.
1917: Photocomposition begins.
1917: Frank Conrad builds a radio station, later KDKA.
1917: Condenser microphone aids broadcasting, recording.
1919: People can now dial telephone numbers themselves.
1919: Shortwave radio is invented.
1919: Flip-flop circuit invented; will help computers to
1920: Around this time radio transforms from a wireless
telegraph service for communication between ships
dominated by relatively few companies such as Radio
Company of America (RCA), General Electric (GE),
Westinghouse and AT&T to a commercially viable public
medium. Companies see radio as an advertising medium and
quickly establish stations as a "public
service." The first company to start regularly
scheduled broadcasts was Westinghouse. Their
transmissions from the first professional radio station
KDKA in Pittsburgh were largely advertisements for
consumer end radios.
1920: The first broadcasting stations are opened.
1920: Sound recording is done electrically.
1920: KDKA in Pittsburgh broadcasts first scheduled
1921: Quartz crystals keep radio signals from wandering.
1921: The word "robot" enters the language.
1921: Western Union begins wirephoto service. 1922: A
commercial is broadcast, $100 for ten minutes.
1922: Technicolor introduces two-color process for
1922: Germany's UFA produces a film with an optical sound
1922: First 3-D movie, requires spectacles with one red
and one green lens.
1922: Singers desert phonograph horn mouths for acoustic
1922: Nanook of the North, the first documentary.
1923: Zworykin's electronic iconoscope camera tube and
kinescope display tube.
1923: People on one ship can talk to people on another.
1923: Ribbon microphone becomes the studio standard.
1923: A picture, broken into dots, is sent by wire.
1923: 16 mm nonflammable film makes its debut.
1923: Kodak introduces home movie equipment.
1923: Neon advertising signs.
1924: Low tech achievement: notebooks get spiral
1924: The Eveready Hour is the first sponsored radio
1924: At KDKA, Conrad sets up a short-wave radio
1924: Pictures are transmitted over telephone lines.
1924: Two and a half million radio sets in the U.S.
1925: Commercial picture facsimile radio service across
1925: All-electric phonograph is built.
1925: A moving image, the blades of a model windmill, is
1925: From France, a wide-screen film.
1926: Commercial picture facsimile radio service across
1926: Baird demonstrates an electro-mechanical TV system.
1926: Some radios get automatic volume control, a mixed
1926: The Book-of-the-Month Club.
1926: In U.S., first 16mm movie is shot.
1926: Goddard launches liquid-fuel rocket.
1926: Permanent radio network, NBC, is formed.
1926: Bell Telephone Labs transmit film by television.
1927: NBC begins two radio networks; CBS formed.
1927: Farnsworth assembles a complete electronic TV
1927: Jolson's "The Jazz Singer" is the first
1927: Movietone offers newsreels in sound.
1927: U.S. Radio Act declares public ownership of the
1927: Negative feedback makes hi-fi possible.
1928: Baird demonstrates color TV on electro-mechanical
1928: The teletype machine makes its debut.
1928: Television sets are put in three homes, programming
1928: Baird invents a video disc to record television.
1928: In an experiment, television crosses the Atlantic.
1928: In Schenectady, NY, the first scheduled television
1928: Steamboat Willie introduces Mickey Mouse.
1928: A motion picture is shown in color.
1928: Times Square gets moving headlines in electric
1928: IBM adopts the 80-column punched card.
1929: Experiments begin on electronic color television.
1929: Telegraph ticker sends 500 characters per minute.
1929: Ship passengers can phone relatives ashore.
1929: Brokers watch stock prices on an automated electric
1929: Something else new: the car radio.
1929: In Germany, magnetic sound recording on plastic
1929: Television studio is built in London.
1929: Bell Lab transmits stills in color by mechanical
1929: Zworykin demonstrates cathode-ray tube
"kinescope" receiver, 60 scan lines.
- 1930: Photo flashbulbs replace dangerous flash powder.
1930: "Golden Age" of radio begins in U.S.
1930: Lowell Thomas begins first regular network
1930: TVs based on British mechanical system roll off
1930: Bush's differential analyzer introduces the
1930: AT&T tries the picture telephone.
1931: Commercial teletype service.
1931: Electronic TV broadcasts in Los Angeles and Moscow.
1931: Exposures meters go on sale to photographers.
1931: NBC experimentally doubles transmission to 120-line
1932: Disney adopts a three-color Technicolor process for
1932: Kodak introduces 8 mm film for home movies.
1932: The "Times" of London uses its new Times
1932: Stereophonic sound in a motion picture,
1932: Zoom lens is invented, but a practical model is 21
1932: The light meter.
1932: NBC and CBS allow prices to be mentioned in
1933: Armstrong invents FM, but its real future is 20
1933: Multiple-flash sports photography.
1933: Singing telegrams.
1933: Phonograph records go stereo.
1934: Drive-in movie theater opens in New Jersey.
1934: Associated Press starts wirephoto service.
1934: In Germany, a mobile television truck roams the
1934: In Scotland, teletypesetting sets type by phone
1934: Three-color Technicolor used in live action film.
1934: The US Government writes Communications Act of 1934
Established the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
to regulate radio frequency use.
1934: Half of the homes in the U.S. have radios. 1934:
Mutual Radio Network begins operations.
1935: German single lens reflex roll film camera
synchronized for flash bulbs.
1935: Also in Germany, audio tape recorders go on sale.
1935: IBM's electric typewriter comes off the assembly
1935: The Penguin paperback book sells for the price of
1935: All-electronic VHF television comes out of the lab.
1935: Eastman-Kodak develops Kodachrome color film.
1935: Nielsen's Audimeter tracks radio audiences.
1936: Berlin Olympics are televised closed circuit.
1936: Bell Labs invents a voice recognition machine.
1936: Kodachrome film sharpens color photography.
1936: Co-axial cable connects New York to Philadelphia.
1936: Alan Turing's "On Computable Numbers"
describes a general purpose computer.
1937: Stibitz of Bell Labs invents the electrical digital
1937: Pulse Code Modulation points the way to digital
1937: NBC sends mobile TV truck onto New York streets.
1937: A recording, the Hindenburg crash, is broadcast
coast to coast.
1937: Carlson invents the photocopier.
1937: Snow White is the first feature-length cartoon.
1938: Strobe lighting.
1938: Baird demonstrates live TV in color.
1938: Broadcasts can be taped and edited.
1938: Two brothers named Biro invent the ball-point pen
1938: CBS "World News Roundup" ushers in modern
1938: DuMont markets electronic television receiver for
1938: Radio drama, "War of the Worlds," causes
1939: New York World's Fair shows television to public.
1939: Regular TV broadcasts begin.
1939: Air mail service across the Atlantic.
1939: Many firsts: sports coverage, variety show, feature
1940: Fantasia introduces stereo sound to American
1941: Stereo is installed in a Moscow movie theater.
1941: FCC sets U.S. TV standards.
1941: CBS and NBC start commercial transmission; WW II
1941: Goldmark at CBS experiments with electronic color
1941: Microwave transmission.
1941: Zuse's Z3 is the first computer controlled by
1942: Atanasoff, Berry build the first electronic digital
1942: Kodacolor process produces the color print.
1943: Repeaters on phone lines quiet long distance call
1944: Harvard's Mark I, first digital computer, put in
1944: IBM offers a typewriter with proportional spacing.
1944: NBC presents first U.S. network newscast, a
1945: Clarke envisions geo-synchronous communication
1945: It is estimated that 14,000 products are made from
1946: Jukeboxes go into mass production.
1946: Pennsylvania's ENIAC heralds the modern electronic
1946: Automobile radio telephones connect to telephone
1946: French engineers build a phototypesetting machine.
1947: Hungarian engineer in England invents holography.
1947: The transistor is invented, will replace vacuum
1947: The zoom lens covers baseball's world series for
1947: Holography invented.
1948: The LP record arrives on a vinyl disk.
1948: Shannon and Weaver of Bell Labs propound
1948: Land's Polaroid camera prints pictures in a minute.
1948: Hollywood switches to nonflammable film.
1948: Public clamor for television begins; FCC freezes
1948: Airplane re-broadcasts TV signal across nine
1949: Network TV in U.S.
1949: RCA offers the 45 rpm record.
1949: Community Antenna Television, forerunner to cable.
1949: Whirlwind at MIT is the first real time computer.
1949: Magnetic core computer memory is invented.
- 1950: Regular color television transmission.
1950: Vidicon camera tube improves television picture.
1950: Changeable typewriter typefaces in use.
1950: A.C. Nielsen's Audimeters track viewer watching.
1951: One and a half million TV sets in U.S., a tenfold
jump in one year.
1951: Cinerama will briefly dazzle with a wide, curved
screen and three projectors.
1951: Computers are sold commercially.
1951: Still camera get built-in flash units.
1951: Coaxial cable reaches coast to coast.
1952: 3-D movies offer thrills to the audience.
1952: Bing Crosby's company tests video recording.
1952: Wide-screen Cinerama appears; other systems soon
1952: Sony offers a miniature transistor radio.
1952: EDVAC takes computer technology a giant leap
1952: Univac projects the winner of the presidential
election on CBS.
1952: Zenith proposes pay-TV system using punched cards.
1952: Sony offers a miniature transistor radio.
1953: NTSC color standard adopted for television.
1953: CATV system uses microwave to bring in distant
1954: U.S.S.R. launches Sputnik.
1954: Radio sets in the world now outnumber newspapers
1954: Regular color TV broadcasts begin.
1954: Sporting events are broadcast live in color.
1954: Radio sets in the world now outnumber daily
1954: Transistor radios are sold.
1955: Tests begin to communicate via fiber optics.
1955: Music is recorded on tape in stereo.
1956: Ampex builds a practical videotape recorder.
1956: Bell tests the picture phone.
1956: First transatlantic telephone calls by cable.
1957: Soviet Union's Sputnik sends signals from space.
1957: FORTRAN becomes the first high-level language.
1957: A surgical operation is televised.
1957: First book to be entirely phototypeset is offset
1958: Videotape delivers color.
1958: Stereo recording is introduced.
1958: Data moves over regular phone circuits.
1958: Broadcast bounced off rocket, pre-satellite
1958: The laser.
1958: Cable carries FM radio stations.
1959: Local announcements, weather data and local ads go
1959: The microchip is invented.
1959: Xerox manufactures a plain paper copier. 1959: Bell
Labs experiments with artificial intelligence.
1959: French SECAM and German PAL systems introduced.
1960: Echo I, a U.S. balloon in orbit, reflects radio
signals to Earth.
1960: In Rhode Island, an electronic, automated post
1960: A movie gets Smell-O-Vision, but the public just
1960: Zenith tests subscription TV; unsuccessful.
1961: Boxing match test shows potential of pay-TV.
1961: FCC approves FM stereo broadcasting; spurs FM
1961: Bell Labs tests communication by light waves.
1961: IBM introduces the "golf ball"
1961: Letraset makes headlines simple.
1961: The time-sharing computer is developed.
1962: Cable companies import distant signals.
1962: FCC requires UHF tuners on tv sets.
1962: The minicomputer arrives.
1962: Comsat created to launch, operate global system.
1962: Telstar satellite transmits an image across the
1963: From Holland comes the audio cassette.
1963: CBS and NBC TV newscasts expand to 30 minutes in
1963: Polaroid camera instant photography adds color.
1963: Communications satellite is placed in
1963: TV news "comes of age" in reporting JFK
1964: Olympic Games in Tokyo telecast live globally by
1964: Touch Tone telephones and Picturephone service.
1964: From Japan, the videotape recorder for home use.
1964: Russian scientists bounce a signal off Jupiter.
1964: Intelsat, international satellite organization, is
1965: Electronic phone exchange gives customers extra
1965: Satellites begin domestic TV distribution in Soviet
1965: Computer time-sharing becomes popular. 1965: Color
1965: Communications satellite Early Bird (Intelsat I)
orbits above the Atlantic.
1965: Kodak offers Super 8 film for home movies.
1965: Cartridge audio tapes go on sale for a few years
1965: Most broadcasts are in color.
1965: FCC rules bring structure to cable television.
1965: Solid-state equipment spreads through the cable
1966: Fiber optic cable multiplies communication
1966: Xerox sells the Telecopier, a fax machine. 1967:
Dolby eliminates audio hiss.
1967: Pre-recorded movies on videotape sold for home TV
1967: Approx. 200 million telephones in the world, half
1968: Intelsat completes global communications satellite
1968: Approx. 200 million TV sets in the world, 78
million in U.S.
1968: The RAM microchip reaches the market.
1969: Astronauts send live photographs from the moon.
1969: Sony's U-Matic puts videotape on a cassette.
- 1970: Postal Reform Bill makes U.S. Postal Service a
1970: In Germany, a videodisc is demonstrated. 1970: U.S.
Post Office and Western Union offer Mailgrams.
1970: The computer floppy disc is an instant success.
1971: Intel builds the microprocessor, "a computer
on a chip."
1971: Wang 1200 is the first word processor.
1972: HBO starts pay-TV service for cable.
1972: New FCC rules lead to community access channels.
1972: Polaroid camera can focus by itself.
1972: Digital television comes out of the lab.
1972: The BBC offers "Ceefax," two-way cable
1972: "Open Skies": any U.S. firm can have
1972: Landsat I, "eye-in-the-sky" satellite, is
1972: Sony's Port-a-Pak, a portable video recorder.
1972: "Pong" starts the video game craze.
1973: The microcomputer is born in France.
1973: IBM's Selectric typewriter is now
1974: In England, the BBC transmits Teletext data to TV
1974: Electronic News Gathering, or ENG.
1974: "Teacher-in-the-Sky" satellite begins
1975: The microcomputer, in kit form, reaches the U.S.
1975: Sony's Betamax and JVC's VHS battle for public
1975: "Thrilla' from Manila"; substantial
original cable programming.
1976: Apple I.
1976: Ted Turner delivers programming nationwide by
1976: Still cameras are controlled by microprocessors.
1977: Columbus, Ohio, residents try 2-way cable
1978: From Konica, the point-and-shoot camera.
1978: PBS goes to satellite for delivery, abandoning
1979: Speech recognition machine has a vocabulary of
1979: Videotext provides data by television on command.
1979: From Holland comes the digital videodisc read by
1979: Computerized laser printing is a boon to Chinese
1980: Sony Walkman tape player starts a fad.
1980: In France, a holographic film shows a gull flying.
1980: Intelsat V relays 12,000 phone calls, 2 color TV
1980: Public International electronic fax service,
1980: Atlanta gets first fiber optics system.
1980: CNN 24-hour news channel.
1980: Addressable converters pinpoint individual homes.
1981: Hologram technology improves, now in video games.
1981: The IBM PC.
1981: The laptop computer is introduced.
1981: The first mouse pointing device.
1982: From Japan, a camera with electronic picture
storage, no film.
1982: USA Today type set in regional plants by satellite
1982: Kodak camera uses film on a disc cassette.
1983: Lasers and plastics improve newspaper production.
1983: Time names the computer as "Man of the
1983: American videotext service starts; fails in three
1984: Portable compact disc player arrives.
1984: National Geographic puts a hologram on its cover.
1984: A television set can be worn on the wrist. 1984:
Japanese introduce high quality facsmile.
1984: Camera and tape deck combine in the camcorder.
1984: Apple Macintosh, IBM PC AT.
1984: The 32-bit microprocessor.
1984: The one megabyte memory chip.
1984: Conus relays news feeds for stations on Ku-Band
1985: Digital image processing for editing stills bit by
1985: CD-ROM can put 270,000 pages of text on a CD.
1985: U.S. TV networks begin satellite distribution to
1985: At Expo, a Sony TV screen measures 40x25 meters.
1985: Sony builds a radio the size of a credit card.
1985: In Japan, 3-D television; no spectacles needed.
1985: Pay-per-view channels open for business. 1986: HBO
scrambles its signals.
1987: Half of all U.S. homes with TV are on cable.
1987: Government deregulates cable industry.
1988: Government brochure mailed to 107 million
1989: Tiananmen Square demonstrates power of media to
inform the world.
1989: Pacific Link fiber optic cable opens, can carry
40,000 phone calls.
- 1990: IBM sells Selectric, a sign of the typewriter's
1990: Videodisc returns in a new laser form.
1991: Beauty and the Beast, a cartoon, Oscar nominee as
1991: Live TV news switching between world capitals
during Gulf War looks simple. 1991: Denver viewers can
order movies at home from list of more than 1,000 titles.
1991: Moviegoers astonished by computer morphing in
1991: Baby Bells get government permission to offer
1991: Collapse of anti-Gorbachev plot aided by global
system the Internet.
1991: More than 4 billion cassette tape rentals in U.S.
1991: 3 out of 4 U.S. homes own VCRs; fastest selling
domestic appliance in history.
1992: Cable TV revenues reach $22 billion.
1992: At least 50 U.S. cities have competing cable
1992: After President Bush speaks, 25 million viewers try
to phone in their opinions.
1993: Dinosaurs roam the earth in Jurassic Park.
1993: Demand begins for "V-chip" to block out
violent television programs.
1993: 1 in 3 Americans does some work at home instead of
driving to work.
1994: After 25 years, U.S. government privatizes Internet
1994: Rolling Stones concert goes to 200 workstations
worldwide on Internet
1994: To reduce Western influence, a dozen nations ban or
restrict satellite dishes.
1995: CD-ROM disk can carry a full-length feature film.
1995: Sony demonstrates flat TV set.
1995: DBS feeds are offered nationwide.
1995: Major U.S. dailies create national on-line
- 1995: Lamar Alexander announces presidential candidacy
via the Internet.
- Compilation of time lines,
Authored by Irving Fang, Emmanuelle Toulette, and Gregory
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