The New York Times ran a fascinating article yesterday
Brain on Computers
. The article presents an unbiased view of the
rampant technology use by both adults and children, in this era of data
bombardment. We are spending more time researching and talking to
faculty about the Millennial generation
, their traits and possible
methods for engaging them in educational settings. Below are some
quotes from the article that struck a chord with my experiences
One recurring theme in the article dealt with data bombardment and multitasking.
"Scientists say juggling e-mail, phone calls and other incoming
information can change how people think and behave. They say our ability
to focus is being undermined by bursts of information. These play to a primitive impulse to respond to immediate opportunities
and threats. The stimulation provokes excitement -- a dopamine squirt -- that researchers
say can be addictive. In its absence, people feel bored."
This is a key theme we run into in many of our meetings with faculty. 'Students can't sit still and focus for an hour in my course, they are always checking their cell phones or laptops'. I understand the frustrations, but I'm also starting to understand more about how dopamine works, specifically around rewards and learning. One of my favorite designers, Raph Koster, explains dopamine in the context of video games. Good games are always built around reward structures, and when you learn how to overcome an obstacle and rewarded in the game, your brain typically releases a dopamine burst. Essentially, Koster posits, you're high on natural, biological drugs when you play a good game and, to a lesser extent, learn new things. Could a class session be structured more like a game, encouraging learning but in the context of this reward structure to keep students interested and solicit this same biological effect?
Another portion of the article deals with multitasking.
"While many people say multitasking makes them more productive, research
shows otherwise. Heavy multitaskers actually have more trouble focusing
and shutting out irrelevant information, scientists say, and they
experience more stress."
The article goes on to weigh both positives and negatives around multitasking, citing several different researchers. What I would consider the negatives tended to outweigh the positives, with one example explaining that heavy multitaskers often tend to forgo valuable information that could be leveraged immediately, opting instead to continue searching and sifting through other data sources. The article also goes on to cite researchers talking about neuroplasticity; that is, the ability for the brain to continue to adapt and change during our lives. The old school of thought was that the brain stopped adapting after childhood. The new hypothesis is that the bombardment of data via all our current data sources is actually beginning to change our neural networks of the brain. This could present yet another disconnect in the millennial classroom; the brains of faculty, compared to students, are physically different and wired differently.
My favorite quote of the article deals with the need to always be connected, always checking email, IMs, new sites and other data sources.
"Throughout evolutionary history, a big surprise would get everyone's
brain thinking," said Clifford Nass, a communications professor at
Stanford. "But we've got a large and growing group of people who think
the slightest hint that something interesting might be going on is like
catnip. They can't ignore it."
This phenomenon I do witness with some of my students, and to me this is my tipping point. I can understand the desire to check, with a high level of frequency, email and your favorite interactive websites. But when that desire to check data sources turns into a 'I can't stop myself because I might be missing something' philosophy...I struggle to find a positive angle to this.