ACOUSTICS (ACS)--ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS (ASTRO)


GRADUATE PROGRAMS, FACULTY, AND COURSES

A course abbreviation, a number, and a title designate each course. Course designations and official abbreviations are listed above the first course in each group. The figures in parentheses following the course title show the number of credits that may be granted for that course. In the case of courses with variable credits, the number of credits that may be earned in a single semester is determined by the department or program offering the course.

A department or major program may schedule an entire section of a course below the 400 level for fewer credits than the maximum authorized. In 400-level courses, a student may schedule fewer credits than the maximum number but in no case more than the maximum number authorized. No 600- level courses (supervised college teaching; on- and off-campus research; and full- and part-time dissertation work) are listed with individual programs. All courses listed under graduate majors may not be required in the particular major.


COMMON COURSES

The following courses for which students may register have been set up for common use by major programs to encourage innovation and provide flexibility in designing graduate programs. For courses 594, 595, 596, 597, and 598, special titles may be requested by a graduate program for a given semester, through the Senate Curriculum Recorder, Birch Cottage.

590. COLLOQUIUM--Continuing seminars that consist of a series of individual lectures by faculty, students, or outside speakers.

594. RESEARCH TOPICS--Supervised student activities on research projects identified on an individual or small- group basis. A specific title may be used in each instance and will be entered on the student's transcript. Multiple offerings may be accommodated by the use of suffixes A, B, etc.

595. INTERNSHIP--Supervised off-campus, nongroup instruction, including field experiences, practicums, or internships. Written and oral critique of activity required. A specific title may be used in each instance and will be entered on the student's transcript. Multiple offerings may be accommodated by the use of suffixes A, B, etc. Prerequisite: prior approval of proposed assignment by instructor.

596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES--Creative projects, including nonthesis research, that are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses. A specific title may be used in each instance and will be entered on the student's transcript. Multiple offerings may be accommodated by the use of suffixes A, B, etc.

597, 598. SPECIAL TOPICS--Formal courses given on a topical or special interest subject which may be offered infrequently; several different topics may be taught in one year or semester. A specific title may be used in each instance and will be entered on the student's transcript. Multiple offerings may be accommodated by the use of suffixes A, B, etc.

599. FOREIGN STUDIES (1-2 per semester, maximum of 4) Courses offered in foreign countries by individual or group instruction. A specific title may be used in each instance and will be entered on the student's transcript. Multiple offerings may be accommodated by the use of suffixes A, B, etc.

600, 610. THESIS RESEARCH--In registering for thesis research a student uses the appropriate number (600, 610) preceded by the abbreviation designating the major field. The numbers 600 (on campus) and 610 (off campus) are available for credit in thesis research in all graduate major programs. The bursar assesses charges for these courses at the current rate of tuition, according to the student's status at the time of registration.

601, 611. THESIS PREPARATION--The numbers 601 and 611, with associated special fees, are available to Ph.D. degree candidates who have passed the comprehensive examination and met the two-semester residence requirement. They may be used for thesis preparation work during its later stages, when the academic activity of the candidate consists partly (611) or solely (601) of work on the completion of research and writing of the dissertation. (See also Course-Numbering System.)

SUBJ 601 and SUBJ 611 do not carry academic credit. They are entered on the academic transcript to indicate the registration and the nature of the candidate's academic activity. A candidate registered for SUBJ 601 is classified as a full-time student, while one registered for SUBJ 611 is classified as a part-time student. (See also Thesis Preparation, in the General Information section of this bulletin.)


The numbers 600, 601, 610, and 611 may not appear in the Schedule of Classes for each semester.

602. SUPERVISED EXPERIENCE IN COLLEGE TEACHING--May be offered by any graduate program in a department that also offers undergraduate courses. A graduate program with no counterpart undergraduate program may offer SUBJ 602 when cooperative arrangements are made with an admin-istrative unit that does not offer graduate degrees but that uses graduate assistants in its teaching. SUBJ 602 may be offered in any semester and is subject to the following restrictions:

  1. SUBJ 602 will not be counted in fulfilling any specific credit requirement for an advanced degree.
  2. SUBJ 602 will be graded (A, B, C, D, F). The grade will appear on the student's transcript.
  3. SUBJ 602 will not be used in calculating grade-point averages.
  4. SUBJ 602 shall be offered only in those graduate programs that want to provide opportunity for supervised and graded teaching experience. Enrollment will be restricted to students for whom the major program is prepared to provide such experience.
  5. SUBJ 602 will be counted as a part of the student's credit load unless the program specifies otherwise.


ACOUSTICS (ACS)


JIRI TICHY, Head of the Graduate Program in Acoustics
217A ARL Building
814-865-6364; Fax--814-865-3119


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.S., M.Eng.


The Graduate Faculty
Carter L. Ackerman, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Engineering Research
John H. Beebe, Ph.D. (Penn State) Research Associate
Ingrid M. Blood, Ph.D. (Bowling Green) Associate Professor of Communication Disorders
Courtney B. Burroughs, Ph.D. (Catholic) Research Associate; Assistant Professor of Acoustics
R. Lee Culver, Ph.D. (California, San Diego) Research Associate; Assistant Professor of Acoustics
John E. Dzielski, Ph.D. (MIT) Research Associate
Thomas A. Frank, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Professor of Communication Disorders
Kenneth E. Gilbert, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Associate Professor of Acoustics
Ralph R. Goodman, Ph.D. (Michigan) Senior Scientist
Sabih I. Hayek, D.Eng.Sc. (Columbia) Professor of Engineering Mechanics
L. Raymond Hettche, Ph.D. (Carnegie Mellon) Professor of Engineering Research
W. Jack Hughes, Ph.D. (Penn State) Senior Research Associate; Associate Professor of Acoustics
Claus P. Janota, Ph.D. (Penn State) Research Associate; Assistant Professor of Acoustics
Gary H. Koopmann, Ph.D. (Catholic) Professor of Mechanical Engineering
John S. Lamancusa, Ph.D. (Wisconsin, Madison) Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Gerald C. Lauchle, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor of Acoustics
John A. Macaluso, Ph.D. (Penn State) Assistant Professor of Engineering Research
Robert D. Marciniak, Ph.D. (Penn State) Research Associate
Julian D. Maynard, Ph.D. (Princeton) Professor of Physics
Diana F. McCammon, Ph.D. (Penn State) Senior Research Associate; Associate Professor of Acoustics
Timothy E. McDevitt, Ph.D. (Penn State) Research Associate
Dennis K. McLaughlin, Ph.D. (MIT) Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Francis R. Menotti, Ph.D. (Connecticut) Research Associate
Philip J. Morris, Ph.D. (Southampton) Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Lynn A. Poole, M.S. (Penn State) Research Associate; Assistant Professor of Acoustics
Dennis W. Ricker, Ph.D. (Purdue) Senior Research Associate; Associate Professor of Acoustics
K. Kirk Shung, Ph.D. (Washington) Professor of Bioengineering
Leon H. Sibul, Ph.D. (Penn State) Senior Scientist; Professor of Acoustics
Victor W. Sparrow, Ph.D. (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) Associate Professor of Acoustics
Richard Stern, Ph.D. (UCLA) Professor of Applied Science and Mechanics
Alan D. Stuart, Ph.D. (Penn State) Senior Research Associate; Associate Professor of Acoustics
David C. Swanson, Ph.D. (Penn State) Research Associate; Assistant Professor of Acoustics
William Thompson, Jr., Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor of Engineering Science
Dennis W. Thomson, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Professor of Meteorology
Jiri Tichy, D.Sc. (Prague Inst. of Tech.) United Technologies Professor of Acoustics, Program Head
Bernhard R. Tittmann, Ph.D. (UCLA) Kunkle Professor of Engineering Science and Mechanics
Martin W. Trethewey, Ph.D. (Michigan Tech.) Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Lora G. Weiss, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Acoustics

The aim of this program is to enable the student interested in acoustics to obtain an integrated program covering acoustical science and engineering applications of acoustics.

Student curricula are individually tailored and integrated through a selection of core and elective courses in areas such as basic acoustics, physical acoustics, underwater acoustics, signal processing, optics, architectural acoustics, medical ultrasonics, aeroacoustics, vibrations, wave propagation, speech, physiological acoustics, psychoacoustics, thermoacoustics, hydroacoustics, and computational acoustics. The courses are offered by the Graduate Program in Acoustics and by other participating University departments, including Aerospace Engineering, Architectural Engineering, Bioengineering, Electrical Engineering, Engineering Science and Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering, Meteorology, Geosciences, Physics, Speech Communication, and Communication Disorders.


Admission Requirements

Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

Entering students should hold a bachelor's degree in physics, engineering, mathematics, or in a closely related field that would provide substantial preparation in mathematics (calculus through differential equations, complex variables, linear algebra), engineering physics and other fundamental areas of relevance to graduate studies in acoustics. Students with a 3.00 junior/senior average (on a 4.00 scale) and with appropriate course backgrounds will be considered for admission. The best qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students. Exceptions to the minimum 3.00 grade- point average may be made for students with special backgrounds and abilities.
Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) are required.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

The foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree is satisfied by a reading knowledge of a foreign language selected from the department's list of approved languages; the communication requirement is satisfied by competence in the use of computer language.

Other Relevant Information

In addition to the acoustics courses listed here, the following courses on acoustics and closely related areas are available: AERSP 511, 524, 525; A E 458, 520; BIOE 506, 516; CMDIS 430, 515, 531, 532, 533, 534, 535, 572, 573; CMPEN 485; E E 459, 530, 557, 560, 561, 562; E SC 536, 537; E MCH 412, 516, 521, 522, 524A,B,C, 525, 527, 528, 560, 562, 570, 597B; GEOSC 507A,B; METEO 435, 527, 536, 551; M E 458, 597; PHYS 443, 533.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ACOUSTICS (ACS)


402. INTRODUCTION TO ACOUSTICS (3)
403. MODERN ELECTRONICS FOR ENGINEERING ACOUSTIC APPLICATIONS(3)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)
497A. SOUND QUALITY (2)

501. FUNDAMENTALS OF ACOUSTICS I (2) Vibrational concepts of acoustics: natural frequency and modes, resonances of lumped parameter systems, strings, elastic rods, beams, and membranes. Prerequisites: PHYS 202, 203; engineering mathematics, including differential equations.

502. FUNDAMENTALS OF ACOUSTICS II (2) Acoustical wave phenomena: propagation, transmission, reflection, and energy; periodic and transient waves; plane, spherical, and standing waves. Prerequisites: PHYS 202, 203; engineering mathematics including differential equations.
505. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES IN ACOUSTICS (2) Properties of acoustical and vibrational

transducers, electronic and other instrumentation used in fundamental data measurement, acquisition, and analysis. Prerequisites: ACS 501, 502.

506. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES IN OCEAN ACOUSTICS (2) Development of measurement techniques and experimental procedures for making acoustic measurements in the ocean. Prerequisites: ACS 501, 502, 505.

510. FUNDAMENTALS OF ACOUSTICS (3) In-depth presentation of the fundamental principles of acoustics; designed to prepare students to take advanced courses in acoustics. (For telecommunications students only.)

511. UNDERWATER SOUND PROPAGATION (3) Theoretical and empirical treatment of sound propagation in the ocean, including effects of the environment, characteristics of targets, and transducers.

512. SONAR ENGINEERING (3) Theoretical and empirical treatment of problems related to the use of underwater sound in target detection and ranging.

513. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING (3) Discrete linear systems, transforms, digital filter design and applications, discrete Fourier transforms, spectrum analysis.

514. ELECTROACOUSTIC TRANSDUCERS (3) The theory, design, and calibration of passive, linear, reciprocal electroacoustic transducers for use in both air and water media. Prerequisite: ACS 501, 502.

515. ACOUSTICS IN FLUID MEDIA (3) Wave propagation in stationary and moving fluids; acoustic radiation and scattering; standing waves in ducts and cavities. Prerequisites: E MCH 524A; ACS 501, 502.

516. ACOUSTICAL DATA MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS (3) Presents the engineering applications of recent developments in correlation and spectral analysis to acoustical measurement problems.

517. TECHNIQUES FOR SOLVING ACOUSTIC FIELD PROBLEMS (3) Transient and time-harmonic acoustic radiation and scattering problems involving various boundary conditions, solved by exact, approximate, and numerical methods. Prerequisites: ACS 515, E MCH 524B.

518. ADAPTIVE SIGNAL PROCESSING (3) Basic concepts and application of adaptive signal processing techniques; adaptive filters beamformers; optimum space/time processors and their adaptive implementation; adaptive algorithms. Prerequisite: E E 459 or equivalent.

519. SOUNDDSTRUCTURE INTERACTION (3) Acoustic radiation from and effects of fluid-loading on vibrating infinite and finite plates and shells. Acoustic transmission through and reflection from elastic plates and shells, acoustic excitation of elastic plates and coupling between panels and acoustic spaces. Prerequisites: ACS 501, 502, E MCH 524B; or E MCH 525.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)
FLOW-INDUCED NOISE (3)
INTENSITY TECHNIQUE (1)
COMPUTATIONAL ACOUSTICS (3)
(M E) NONLINEAR ACOUSTICS (3)
ACTIVE CONTROL OF SOUND AND VIBRATION (3)
(M E) ADVANCED NOISE CONTROL (3)
SONAR SIGNAL PROCESSING (3)
(M E) PURTURBATION METHODS IN ACOUSTICS AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (3)
OCEAN ACOUSTICS (3)
ACTIVE ECHO LOCATION AND SONAR (1)
THERMOACOUSTICS (3)
PHYSICAL ACOUSTICS (3)
SHALLOW WATER ACOUSTICS (2)
NOISE CONTROL ENGINEERING (2)
MUSIC ACOUSTICS (3)
ARCHITECTRUAL ACOUSTICS (2)
598. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


ADULT EDUCATION (ADTED)


EUNICE N. ASKOV, In Charge of Graduate Programs in Adult Education
314 Keller Building
814-863-3781


Degrees Conferred: D.Ed., M.Ed.


The Graduate Faculty
Eunice N. Askov, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Professor of Education
Kimberly A. Townsend, D.Ed., (Penn State) Affiliate Assistant Professor of Education
Barbara Copland, D.Ed. (Penn State) Affiliate Assistant Professor of Education
Daniele Flannery, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Assistant Professor of Education
Gary W. Kuhne, D.Ed. (Penn State) Assistant Professor of Education
Gary E. Miller, D.Ed. (Penn State) Affiliate Associate Professor of Education
Michael G. Moore, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Education
Donna S. Queeney, Ph.D. (Penn State) Affiliate Associate Professor of Education
B. Allan Quigley, Ed.D. (Northern Illinois) Associate Professor of Education
Fred M. Schied, Ed.D. (Northern Illinois) Assistant Professor of Adult Education
Joan S. Thomson, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Rural Sociology Extension; Affiliate
Associate Professor of Education

The focus of a program leading to a degree in Adult Education is the facilitation of purposeful continuing learning by men and women--alone, in groups, in the community, or in institutional settings. Adult Education extends through the life span from late adolescence to advanced age and takes place in a rich diversity of organizational as well as informal settings. The purpose of the Adult Education program is to increase the knowledge and competence of those who work with adult learners. Course work, reading assignments, projects, internships, informal discussions, and the dissertation all provide opportunities for in-depth, mind- stretching, and challenging learning experiences. The programs are interdisciplinary, and students are advised to seek learning beyond the minor in supporting fields within the University.

The Adult Education program is designed for each student, taking into consideration differences in life experience, including education, work, family situation, and plans for future employment. Typically, people interested in Adult Education are engaged in or oriented toward careers as researchers, administrators, counselors, instructors, and program planners in learning environments such as community development, staff development, professional continuing education, corrections education, literacy and adult basic education, religious education, human services, correspondence/distance learning, higher education, and university extension.

Scheduling is arranged, so far as possible, to accommodate the employed student, although full-time study is recommended. Entering students are expected to have a concept of their major interest and possible thesis subject, which may be developed during course work.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), or from the Miller Analogies Test (MAT), are required for admission. At the discretion of a graduate program, a student may be admitted provisionally for graduate study in the program without these scores. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students. Applicants with a total Verbal and Quantitative score above 1100 on the GRE, a junior/senior average of 3.00 (on a 4.00 scale), and a graduate average of 3.50 are usually admitted to the D.Ed. program. Applicants with a junior/senior average of 2.70, a graduate average of 3.20, and a GRE total score of 1000 but with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests also may be admitted to the doctoral program with only the baccalaureate degree, but they will earn the master's degree en route. The Miller Analogies Test may be accepted in place of the GRE for admission to the graduate program in Adult Education. A sample of student writing and a "career letter" in which applicants explain how the proposed studies in adult education relate to their careers are required for each degree.


Master's Degree Requirements

M.Ed. students are required to write a master's paper in lieu of a thesis, in addition to the required 33 credits of course work. A minimum of 18 credits in course work must be taken at the 500 level, with at least 15 of those 18 credits being in Adult Education courses.
Doctoral Degree Requirements

D.Ed. students who do not have previous experience in adult education are expected to acquire the equivalent of one year of experience in one or more fields of adult education practice prior to receiving their D.Ed. degree. During the comprehensive examination, in addition to being examined in their area of specialization, all D.Ed. students will be examined in the core adult education areas. A minimum of 24 credits in course work must be taken in Adult Education.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ADULT EDUCATION (ADTED)


460. INTRODUCTION TO ADULT EDUCATION (3)
470. (CI ED) INTRODUCTION TO DISTANCE EDUCATION (3)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)
498. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

505. THE TEACHING OF ADULTS (3) Examination of direct and indirect teaching; contracts, application of current technology, andragogy, motivation, evaluation; knowledge of research. Prerequisite: ADTED 460.

506. PROGRAM PLANNING IN ADULT EDUCATION (3) Intensive study of theoretical foundations, policies, evaluation models, methods, and materials in program planning in adult education. Prerequisites: ADTED 460, 505.

507. RESEARCH AND EVALUATION IN ADULT EDUCATION (3) Guided discussion and reading in selected research and evaluation methods and trends as applied in adult education settings. Prerequisites: ADTED 460; introductory statistics course; introductory research design course.

510. HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL ISSUES IN ADULT EDUCATION (3) Social and historical foundations of adult education in the United States and selected nations. Prerequisite: ADTED 460.

531. COURSE DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT IN DISTANCE EDUCATION (3) In-depth study of the practices of designing courses taught by print, broadcast, and telecommunications media to adult distance learners. Prerequisites: ADTED 470, INSYS 415.

532. RESEARCH AND EVALUATION IN DISTANCE EDUCATION (3) Study of previous, current, and needed research, strategies, and issues concerning evaluation in distance education. Prerequisites: ADTED 460, 470.

540. SERVING ADULT LEARNERS IN HIGHER EDUCATION (3) Seminar on the characteristics and needs of adult students in the higher education context: motivations, persistence, faculty development, advising/counseling. Prerequisite: ADTED 460 or consent of instructor.

541. WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN ADULT EDUCATION (3) Seminar on women and minority adults as learners and leaders in the various contexts of adult education. Prerequisite: ADTED 460.

549. (HI ED) COMMUNITY JUNIOR COLLEGE AND THE TECHNICAL INSTITUTE (2-3) Distinctive contributions to meeting the need for postsecondary education; development, functions, curriculum and instruction, government, administration, and finance.

560. (LL ED) TEACHING READING TO COLLEGE STUDENTS AND ADULTS (3) Reading/literacy for adults, including college reading, Adult Basic Education (ABE), and General Educational Development (GED) programs. Prerequisite: LL ED 440 or teaching experience.

570. (CI ED) COMPARATIVE AND INTERNATIONAL ADULT EDUCATION (3) Critical and comparative analysis of adult education theory and practice outside North America, including international agency involvement. Prerequisite: ADTED 460.

575. (EDADM) ADMINISTRATION OF ADULT EDUCATION (3) Organization of a program of adult education; legal status, finances, selection of teachers, learning personnel, housing; other administrative problems. Prerequisite: ADTED 506 or EDADM 480.

580. ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH SEMINAR (1-3) A seminar dealing with specific research topics and methods in adult education. Open to advanced students in adult education. Prerequisites: ADTED 507, EDPSY 400, 475.

588. PROFESSIONAL SEMINAR: RESEARCH AND ADULT EDUCATION (3) Review of research in adult education, current and past, with analysis of its directions, effects, methodology, quality, financing, and prospects. Prerequisites: ADTED 460, 507.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)

595. INTERNSHIP IN ADULT EDUCATION (3-9) Supervised student internship in adult education agency. Prerequisite: ADTED 460.
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597, 598. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


ADVERTISING (ADVT)
This program is closed to admission pending review. Contact the associate dean,
College of Communications, for current information.


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING (AERSP)


DENNIS K. McLAUGHLIN, Head of the Department
233 Hammond Building
814-865-2569


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.S., M.Eng.


The Graduate Faculty
Anthony K. Amos, Ph.D. (Princeton) Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Michael L. Billet, Ph.D. (Penn State) Senior Scientist
Cengiz Camci, Ph.D. (Von Karman Inst.) Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering
George S. Dulikravich, Ph.D. (Cornell) Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering
J. William Holl, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor Emeritus of Aerospace Engineering
Budugur Lakshminarayana, Ph.D., D.Eng. (Liverpool) Evan Pugh Professor of Aerospace Engineering
George A. Lesieutre, Ph.D. (California) Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Lyle N. Long, Ph.D. (George Washington) Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Mark D. Maughmer, Ph.D. (Illinois) Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Barnes W. McCormick, Jr., Ph.D. (Penn State) P.E. Professor Emeritus of Aerospace Engineering
Dennis K. McLaughlin, Ph.D. (MIT) Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Robert G. Melton, Ph.D. (Virginia) Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Michael M. Micci, Ph.D. (Princeton) Associate Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Philip J. Morris, Ph.D. (Southampton) Boeing Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Blaine R. Parkin, Ph.D. (Cal. Tech.) P.E. Professor Emeritus of Aerospace Engineering
Michael M. Reischman, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State) Professor/Associate Dean for Graduate Studies
and Research
Edward C. Smith, Ph.D. (Maryland) Assistant Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Hubert C. Smith, Ph.D. (Virginia) Assistant Professor of Aerospace Engineering
Donald E. Thompson, Ph.D. (Penn State) Senior Research Associate

Opportunities for graduate study are available in the following areas: low-speed aerodynamics, V/STOL aircraft, turbulence, astrodynamics, turbomachinery, aeroacoustics, gas dynamics, hydrodynamics, stability and control of aerospace vehicles, aerospace structures, computational fluid dynamics, experimental fluid dynamics, space propulsion, and space vehicle dynamics.


Admission Requirements

Applicants must submit official scores form teh Graduate Record Examination (GRE) for admission to the graduate program and consideration for financial assistance. In addition to generla Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin, the department poses a number of specfic requirements. The entering M.Eng. or M.S. student must hold a bachelor's degree in engineering, physical science, or mathematics, and may be required to complete (withou degree credit) undergraduate course work in fluid and solid mechanics and intermediate mathematical analysis, if not already completed. The department will consider students with a 3.0 junior/senior grade-point average (on a 4.0 scale) and with the appropriate course backgrounds for admission to the M.Eng. or M.S. program; students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests may requrest a waiver to the minimum 3.0 grade-point average. The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are now available to new students. Admission to the Ph.D. program requires satisfactory completion of a master's program in engineering, physical science, or mathematics.

M.Eng., M.S., and Ph.D. Core Requirements

1. Two courses for 6 credits in basic field theories, one in each of two different categories from a prescribed list in fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, or system dynamics.

2. One 3-credit course from a prescribed list in numerical or computational methods for analysis of differential equations.
3. One 3-credit course from a prescribed list of 500-level applied mathematics courses.
4. M.S. and Ph.D. candidates must demonstrate evidence of experimental experience.
5. Teaching assistants and teaching aides must satisfactorily complete ENGR 588.
6. M.S. and Ph.D. candidates must present their theses at a public seminar at Penn State.
7. (M.Eng. only) a 2-credit scholarly paper.
8. (M.Eng. only) a 1-credit graduate colloquium.


Master of Engineering Degree Requirements

A total of 30 credits is required, including courses in the core requirements. Twenty-one credits must be in aerospace engineering courses with at least 18 credits at the 500 level. A student may take a maximum of 6 credits of 400-level course work. Each student must complete a scholarly paper (completed for 2 credits of AERSP 596), including a review of the literature and some experiment or analysis, and take the 1-credit graduate colloquium.


Master of Science Degree Requirements

A total of 30 credits is required, including courses in the core requirements. Twelve credits must be in aerospace engineering courses with at least 6 credits at the 500 level. A student may take a maximum of 6 credits of 400-level course work. Six credits of thesis research are also required. Completion of an M.S. thesis is required for graduation.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

There is no foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree; however, students must demonstrate proficiency in reading, writing, and speaking English through an English proficiency examination administered by the department. This satisfies the Graduate School's requirement that must be completed before taking the comprehensive exam. The candidates doctoral committee decides which, if any, courses are required in addition to those specified in the core requirements.

During the progression on the Ph.D. program, the doctoral committee administers the following examinations: The candidacy examination is given as a preliminary aptitude test before the end of the second semester. A comprehensive examination covering the major and minor fields of study is administered after the candidate has substantially completed the required course work. The final oral examination, which is related mainly to the thesis, is given after the candidates has satisfied all other degree requirements. All Ph.D. students must maintain continuous registration until the thesis is approved.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of financial aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


AEROSPACE ENGINEERING (AERSP)


401A. SPACECRAFT DESIGN--PRELIMINARY (2)
401B. SPACECRAFT DESIGN--DETAILED (2)
402A. AIRCRAFT DESIGN--PRELIMINARY (2)
402B. AIRCRAFT DESIGN--DETAILED (2)
403. DESIGN OF AIR TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (3)
404H. FLIGHT VEHICLE DESIGN AND FABRICATION II (3)
405W. AERODYNAMICS LABORATORY (2)
406W. STRUCTURES AND DYNAMICS LABORATORY (2)
407. AERODYNAMICS OF V/STOL AIRCRAFT (3)
410. AEROSPACE PROPULSION (3)
412. TURBULENT FLOW (3)
413. STABILITY AND CONTROL OF AIRCRAFT (3)
420. PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT TESTING (3)
423. INTRODUCTION TO NUMERICAL METHODS IN FLUID DYNAMICS (3)
425. THEORY OF FLIGHT (3)
430. SPACE PROPULSION AND POWER SYSTEMS (3)
450. ORBIT AND ATTITUDE CONTROL OF SPACECRAFT (3)
473. (E MCH) COMPOSITES PROCESSING (3)
490. (E E, NUC E) INTRODUCTION TO PLASMAS (3)
492. (ASTRO, E E) SPACE ASTRONOMY AND INTRODUCTION TO SPACE SCIENCE (3)
494. AEROSPACE UNDERGRADUATE THESIS (1-3 per semester, maximum of 6)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

504. AERODYNAMICS OF V/STOL AIRCRAFT (3) Jet wings, high lift devices, propellers and ducted propellers, circulation and boundary layer control, unsteady airfoil theory. Prerequisite: AERSP 407.

505. AERO- AND HYDROELASTICITY (3) Interaction of elastic systems having several degrees of freedom with fluid flows in various configurations.

507. THEORY AND DESIGN OF TURBOMACHINERY (3) Theory and principles of machinery design: compressors, turbines, pumps, and rotating propulsors; opportunity to work out design examples.

508. FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS (3) Mathematical review, fluid properties, kinematics, conservation laws, constitutive relations, similarity principles, the boundary layer, inviscid flow, vorticity dynamics, wave motion.

509. DYNAMICS OF IDEAL FLUIDS (3) Irrotational flow theory, two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows, airfoil theory, complex variables, unsteady phenomena; flow with vorticity, finite wing theory. Prerequisite: AERSP 508.

510. COMPRESSIBLE FLOW (3) Classification and solution of compressible flow problems, high-speed gasdynamics, unsteady motion, transonic and hypersonic flows, atmospheric reentry.

511. AERODYNAMICALLY INDUCED NOISE (3) Review of fluid mechanics. General theory of aerodynamic sound. Noise radiation from jets, boundary layers, rotors, and fans. Structural response.

512. VISCOUS FLOW (3) Stress-deformation relations; Newtonian fluids, Navier-Stokes equations; exact, asymptotic laminar solutions; instability, transition; similitude and turbulent boundary layer.

514. STABILITY OF LAMINAR FLOWS (3) The stability of laminar motions in various geometries as influenced by boundary conditions and body forces of various kinds.

518. DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF AEROSPACE VEHICLES (3) Dynamical problems of aircraft and missiles, including launch, trajectory, optimization, orbiting reentry, stability and control, and automatic control. Prerequisite: AERSP 413 or 450.

524. (M E) HOMOGENEOUS TURBULENCE (3) First in two-part series. Similarity and scaling, vorticity dynamics; Fourier spectral representation; interscale energy transfer. Numerical simulations and experimental measurement. Prerequisite: A graduate-level course in fluid mechanics.

525. (M E) INHOMOGENEOUS TURBULENCE (3) Second in two-part series. Instability and transition; turbulence models; Reynolds stress closure schemes; large eddy simulations; wave models; turbulence measurements. Prerequisite: AERSP 524.

526. (M E) COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR SHEAR LAYERS (3) Study of numerical solution methods for steady and unsteady laminar or turbulent boundary-layer equations in two and three dimensions. Prerequisite: AERSP 423 or M E 540.

527. (M E) COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN TRANSONIC FLOW (3) Numerical solution of partial differential equations of mixed type, with emphasis on transonic flows and separating boundary layers. Prerequisite: AERSP 423 or M E 540.

528. (M E) COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR RECIRCULATING FLOWS (3) Numerical solution techniques for laminar/turbulent flow with large recirculation zones. Both primitive variable and stream function-vorticity equations used. Prerequisites: AERSP 423, M E 540.

529. ADVANCED ANALYSIS AND COMPUTATION OF TURBOMACHINERY FLOWS (3) Review of numerical methods; three- dimensional inviscid flow computation, two- and three-dimensional viscous flow effects and computation; recent advances. Prerequisites: AERSP 423; AERSP 507 or M E 418.

530. AEROTHERMOCHEMISTRY OF ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS (3) Physics and chemistry needed to analyze advanced rocket propulsion systems including reacting high temperature radiating gas and plasma flows. Prerequisite: AERSP 312 or M E 434.

540. (E E, NUC E) THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES (3) Solutions of the Boltzmann equation; waves in bounded and unbounded plasmas; radiation and scattering from plasmas. Prerequisite: AERSP (E E, NUC E) 490.

550. ASTRODYNAMICS (3) Applications of classical celestial mechanics to space flight planning. Determination and construction of orbital parameters by approximation methods. Perturbation techniques. Prerequisite: AERSP 450 or ASTRO 460 or E MCH 410 or PHYS 419.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


AGRICULTURAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING (A B E)


HARVEY B. MANBECK, Interim Head of the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
250 Agricultural Engineering Building
814-865-7792


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.S.


The Graduate Faculty
Dennis R. Buckmaster, Ph.D. (Michigan State) P.E. Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Dennis E. Buffington, Ph.D. (Minnesota), P.E. Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Herschel A. Elliott, Ph.D. (Delaware) P.E. Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Robert E. Graves, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) P.E. Professor of Agricultural Engineering
James M. Hamlett, Ph.D. (Iowa State) P.E. Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Paul H. Heinemann, Ph.D. (Florida) Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
James W. Hilton, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Albert R. Jarrett, Ph.D. (Penn State) P.E. Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Harvey B. Manbeck, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State) P.E. Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Charles T. Morrow, Ph.D. (Penn State) P.E. Professor Agricultural Engineering
Dennis J. Murphy, Ph.D. (Penn State) C.S.P. Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Virendra M. Puri, Ph.D. (Delaware) Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Paul D. Robillard, Ph.D. (Cornell) Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Robert D. Shannon, Ph.D. (Indiana) Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Paul N. Walker, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) P.E. Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Eileen F. Wheeler, Ph.D. (Cornell) Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Kenneth M. Lomax, Ph.D. (Maryland) Adjunct Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
James A. Zollweg, Ph.D. (Cornell) Adjunct Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering
Rabi H. Mohtar, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Research Associate in Agricultural Engineering

Graduate programs are available in the areas of the physical properties of biological materials, plant and animal production systems, food engineering, wood engineering, agricultural structures, agricultural safety, food safety, bulk solids handling and storage systems, agricultural systems engineering, agricultural by- product utilization, forage processing and handling systems, horticultural engineering, electronics instrumentation, on-line computer control systems, microclimate modification, erosion and sedimentation control, waste management, water quality, and natural resources management and conservation.

Excellent facilities, including equipment and instrumentation, are available for research in the designated areas. Among the special facilities are a GIS modeling lab; field plot areas; afull-scale sedimentation basin test facility; hydraulic flumes; sedigraph; gas an ion chormatography units; atomic absorption unit; rainfall simulators; food properties lab; computer vision systems; hydraulic and pneumatic test stands; fabrication shp; electronics insturmentation; micromputer laboratory; controlled environment chambers; wood structures lab; and wood mechanics lab. Collaborative arrangements allow access to a large variety of other resources: Environmental Resources Research Institute; Particulate Materials Center; Housing Research Center; Center for Food Manufacturing; USDA Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Lab; a mushroom research and demonstration facility and a 1,500-acre agricultural research center for cooperative work with agronomic and horticultural production systems as well as animal production systems.


Admission Requirements

All students must submit scores from the General Aptitude Test of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) prior to admission except those who have an ABET-accredited engineering degree. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.
An undergraduate major in engineering is normally a prerequisite to work in the major. Students without an undergraduate engineering degree will be considered for admission on a provisional basis pending the completion of a number of additional credits to be specified on an individual basis. These remedial courses must be completed with a minimum grade-point average of 2.75.
The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students.


Master's Degree Requirements

All candidates for the M.S. degree must prepare a thesis. In addition, 24 credits of course work are required. Each program should include at least one course each from the areas of agricultural and biological engineering, agricultural/biological science, colloquium, and mathematics or statistics. Additional program details are contained in a syllabus available from the department.A total of at least 12 credits of course work must be at the 500 level.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

The communication requirement for the Ph.D. degree may be satisfied by either 6 credits of courses in an approved sequence or a foreign language.
All students should complete a master's program before seeking the doctoral degree.

A graduate student who wants to become a doctoral candidate must be approved for candidacy by the candidacy examination committee of the agricultural and biological engineering department. No specified number of courses completed or credits earned are required by the department, except that the candidate must take at least 9 credits of course work, including 6 at the 500 level, in agricultural and biological engineering beyond the baccalaureate degree and 1 credit of colloquium beyond the master's degree. A doctoral committee appointed by the Graduate School will approve the student's course work program.


Other Relevant Information
Continuous fall and spring registration is required for all graduate students until the thesis is approved.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


AGRICULTURAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING (A B E)
400. BIOLOGY FOR ENGINEERS (3)
401. MODELLING METHODS FOR BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS (3)
402. TRANSPORT PROCESSES FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION (3)
403. POWER AND STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS IN AGRICULTURE (3)
404. ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF FOOD AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS (3)
405. AGRICULTURAL MEASUREMENTS AND CONTROL SYSTEMS (3)
461. DESIGN OF FLUID POWER SYSTEMS (3)
462. DESIGN OF WOOD STRUCTURES (3)
465. FOOD AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESS ENGINEERING (4)
467. DESIGN HYDROLOGY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY (4)
469W. OPTIMIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING SYSTEMS (3)
471. ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES (1)
472. FUNCTIONAL DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS (1)
490W. AGRICULTURAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING COLLOQUIUM (1)
494. SENIOR THESIS (1-9)
495. AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING INTERNSHIP (1-6)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

500. RESEARCH METHODS (3) Introduction to research philosophies, methodologies, issues and policies; measures of research quality; research report writing; research ethics.

504. MECHANICS AND PROPERTIES OF PARTICULATE MATERIALS (3) Constitutive equations for cohesionless and cohesive particulate materials; measurement of properties; application to storage, flow, and consolidation.

512. STRUCTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS (3) Advanced topics on the design and analysis of structural and environmental control systems for agricultural buildings. Prerequisites: A B E 462.

513. APPLIED FINITE ELEMENT, FINITE DIFFERENCE, AND BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHODS (3) Applications of numerical methods in the areas of structures, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, machine design.

515. THERMAL PHENOMENA IN FOOD ENGINEERING (3) Heat and mass transfer phenomena, nutrient degradation rates, and energy use in food processing.

517. SURFACE TRANSPORT OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTANTS (3) Understanding and modeling the surface transport processes of agricultural pollutants; particularly erosion, sediment transport, and movement of sediment- attached constituents.

519. CONTROL OF AGRICULTURAL PROCESSES USING MICROCOMPUTERS (1-3) Design and application of control systems for agricultural processes and equipment using microcomputers. Prerequisite: A B E 405.

559. AGRICULTURAL AND BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS SIMULATION (3) Continuous and discrete simulation modeling of physical and biological systems, numerical simulation techniques, validation and verification, difference measures, sensitivity analysis. Prerequisites: CMPSC 101 or 201; MATH 111 or 141.

562. (E MCH) BOUNDARY ELEMENT ANALYSIS (3) Numerical solution of boundary value problems using fundamental solutions; application to problems in potential theory, diffusion, and elastostatics. Prerequisite: A B E 513, E MCH 461, or 560.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (AG EC)


MILTON C. HALLBERG, Interim Head of the Department of Agricultural Economics and
Rural Sociology
103 Armsby Building
814-865-5461


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.S., M.Agr.


The Graduate Faculty
Charles Abdalla, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
David G. Abler, Ph.D. (Chicago) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
Theodore R. Alter, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Professor of Agricultural Economics
John C. Becker, J.D. (Dickinson) Professor of Agricultural Economics
James G. Beierlein, Ph.D. (Purdue) Professor of Agricultural Economics
James W. Dunn, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State) Professor of Agricultural Economics
Donald J. Epp, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Professor of Agricultural Economics
Jill L. Findeis, Ph.D. (Washington State) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
Ann N. Fisher, Ph.D. (Connecticut) Senior Research Associate
Stephen A. Ford, Ph.D. (Minnesota) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
Frank M. Goode, Ph.D. (Minnesota) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
Milton C. Hallberg, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Professor of Agricultural Economics
Kate A. Smith, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics
Jayson K. Harper, Ph.D. (Texas A&M) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
William L. Henson, Ph.D. (Penn State) Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics and Rural
Sociology
Robert O. Herrmann, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Professor of Agricultural Economics
Drew W. Hyman, Ph.D. (California) Professor of Public Policy and Community Systems
J. Dean Jansma, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State) Professor of Agricultural Economics
Timothy W. Kelsey, Ph.D. (Michigan) Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics
Wayne A. Schutjer, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Professor of Agricultural Economics
James Shortle, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Professor of Agricultural Economics
Blair J. Smith, Ph.D. (North Carolina State) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
Stephen M. Smith, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
Spiro Stefanou, Ph.D. (California, Davis) Professor of Agricultural Economics
Robert D. Weaver, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics
Robert D. Yonkers, Ph.D. (Texas A&M) Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics

The graduate program emphasizes economic theory and analytical techniques in the fields of farm management, production economics, agricultural marketing, resource and environmental economics, rural development, agricultural policy and prices, and international agricultural trade and development.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record examination (GRE), or from a comparable substitute examination accepted by a graduate program and authorized by the dean of the Graduate School, are required for admission. At the discretion of a graduate program, a student may be admitted provisionally for graduate study in a program without these scores. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

Students entering the master's program should have a total of 9 credits in agricultural economics and/or economics. Students entering the doctoral program should have successfully completed courses in intermediate micro- and macroeconomic theory, in differential and integral calculus and linear algebra, and in intermediate statistics. Students are permitted to enter the master's and doctoral programs with deficiencies but must pass courses to eliminate deficiencies as soon as possible.

Students with a 2.75 junior/senior grade-point average (on a 4.00 scale) and with appropriate course backgrounds will be considered for admission. The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students. Exceptions to the minimum 2.75 grade-point average may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

There is no foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree; rather, the student must satisfactorily complete courses in economic theory and quantitative methods.


Other Relevant Information

Students in this program may elect the dual-title degree program option in Operations Research for the Ph.D. and M.S. degrees.

Students may qualify for admission to the dual-title degree program option in Demography consisting of. interdisciplinary course work, with special emphasis on the economic, social, and geographic issues arising. from the dynamics of population change.


Student Aid
Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (AG EC)


401. LAND AND WATER RESOURCE POLICY (3)
402. LAND AND WATER RESOURCE ECONOMICS (3)
407. FARM PLANNING AND FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT (3)
410. AGRICULTURAL REAL ESTATE APPRAISAL (3)
420. AGRICULTURAL PRICES (3)
430. PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANNING (3)
432. TECHNIQUES OF COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PLANNING (3)
450. AGRICULTURE AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (3)
460. ECONOMICS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY (3)
461. MANAGERIAL ECONOMICS IN AGRICULTURAL BUSINESS FIRMS (3)
480. PLANNING AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES (1)
495A. INTERNSHIP IN AGRIBUSINESS AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (1-6)
495B. INTERNSHIP IN INTERNATIONAL AGRIBUSINESS (6)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)
499. FOREIGN STUDY--AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS (1-12)

501. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ECONOMICS I (3) Application of microeconomic theory to problems and decisions of farm households and agricultural firms. Prerequisite: ECON 502.

502. ECONOMICS OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT (3) Emphasis will be placed on the application of economic concepts to problems and policies in rural areas. Prerequisites: ECON 502, 503.

503. AGRICULTURAL MARKETING (3) Economic analysis of food marketing firms and institutions; identification and measurement of dimensions of market performance; public policy. Prerequisite: ECON 502.

510. (ECON) ECONOMETRICS I (3) General linear model, multicolinearity, specification error, autocorrelation, heteroskedasticity, restricted least squares, functional form, dummy variables, limited dependent variables. Prerequisite: ECON 490, STAT 462, or 501.

511. (ECON) ECONOMETRICS II (3) Stochastic regressors, distributed lag models, pooling cross-section and time- series date, simultaneous equation models. Prerequisite: AG EC (ECON) 510.

519. RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS I (3) Theories and methods for economic analysis of natural resource and environmental policies with applications to current issues. Prerequisite: ECON 502.

525. RESEARCH METHODS IN RURAL SOCIAL SCIENCES (3) Scientific method in planning and conducting research. Prerequisites: 9 credits in social sciences.

527. QUANTITATIVE METHODS I (3) Quantitative techniques applied to agricultural economic issues. Prerequisites: ECON 502.

533. RURAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH METHODS AND TOPICS (3) Advanced theories and methods for rural economic development research. Prerequisites: AG EC 502, 511, ECON 521.

534. AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ECONOMICS II (3) Current problems and methods of analysis in production economics research. Prerequisites: AG EC 511, 527, ECON 521.

536. AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY MARKETS (3) Specification, identification, and estimation of models for use in the evaluation and control of agricultural market behavior. Prerequisite: AG EC (ECON) 510, 511, or ECON 521.

538. POLICY FOR THE FOOD AND AGRICULTURE SECTOR (3) Policy formation; policies for food and agriculture, consequences for farmers, consumers, resources; farm program benefits and costs; current issues. Prerequisites: AG EC (ECON) 511, ECON 521, ECON 522.

539. INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE (3) Analysis of determinants, institutions, and policy control of agricultural trade. Role of agricultural trade in the general economy and development. Prerequisite: ECON 502.

541. RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS II (3) Key theories and analytical methods of resource and environment economics. Prerequisites: AG EC 511, 519, ECON 521.

550. INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND AGRICULTURE (3) The economic development process with particular emphasis on agriculture. Prerequisite: ECON 502.

589. (ECON) SEMINAR IN ECONOMETRIC THEORY (3) Theories and methods relevant to the application of statistical methods to economics. Prerequisite: AG EC (ECON) 510.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION (AG ED)


EDGAR P. YODER, Interim Head of the Department
323 Agricultural Administration Building
814-865-1688


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., D.Ed., M.S., M.Ed.


The Graduate Faculty
Phyllis F. Adams, Ph.D. (Oklahoma State) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Connie D. Baggett, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Blannie E. Bowen, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Cathy F. Bowen, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Assistant Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Thomas H. Bruening, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Samuel M. Curtis, D.Ed. (Penn State ) Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Arlen W. Etling, E.Ed. (Massachusetts) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Donald E. Evans, D.Ed. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Constance A. Flanagan, Ph.D. (U Michigan) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Anne L. Heinsohn, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Extension Education
Patreese D. Ingram, Ed.D. (Western Michigan) Assistant Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Robert B. Lewis, Ed.D. (North Carolina State) Professor of 4-H Youth
James H. Mortensen, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor of Agricultural Education
Timothy J. Rollins, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Tena L. St. Pierre, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Dennis C. Scanlon, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Jan F. Scholl, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Associate Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
B. Alan Snider, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Joan S. Thomson, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Rural Sociology
Barbara K. Wade, Ph.D. (Penn State) Affiliate Associate Professor of Agricultural and
Extension Education
M. Susie Whittington, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Assistant Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education
Edgar P. Yoder, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Professor of Agricultural and Extension Education

Graduate programs emphasize agricultural or extension education (including preparation for employment in college or university programs), youth and family programming, state-level administration, local-level administration, private industry and international education. A minor may be taken in an area of the student's choice or in general studies. Programs may include courses needed for certification in other fields of education.


Admission Requirements

All applicants must submit a letter of application, two or three typewritten pages in length, describing their professional experience, education, career goals, and reasons for pursuing the degree. Applicants must ensure that three departmental recommendation and evaluation forms from individuals knowledgeable about the applicant are forwarded to the department. Only the most qualified applicants will be admitted to the graduate program. The graduate program may provisionally admit selected applicants pending resolution of the requirements listed here or applicants with special skills and experiences. Requirements listed here are in addition to the general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.
Master's Degrees: Prerequisite for admission to a master's program is a demonstrated professional interest in agricultural and extension education and/or applied youth and family development. Applicants should have a minimum grade-point average of 2.80 on a 4.00 scale for the junior and senior years of their baccalaureate degree or a minimum combined score of 800 on the verbal and quantitative sections of the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).
Master of science. This program is intended for those who are interested in defining, developing, or evaluating educational programs, both formal or nonformal, through public and private agencies and organizations serving youth, families or the agriculture community.
Prerequisite for admission to the master of education program is a minimum of 18 credits in professional education courses (including educational psychology and teaching and/or professional internship) or certification as a teacher of agriculture, or equivalent professional experience, including extension.
Doctoral Degrees: An applicant should have a minimum average of 3.40 on a 4.00 scale on all previous graduate work or a minimum combined score of 1000 on the verbal and quantitative sections of the GRE. Two years of appropriate professional experience is required either prior to admission or before the degree is awarded. An interview with the graduate faculty is recommended of all applicants prior to admission into a doctoral program. Applicants to the doctoral program must submit evidence of ability to write a scholarly paper or thesis and demonstrate a teaching-level competence of English.


Master's Degree Requirements

A program of study agreement between adviser and student, including planned course work (approved by the student's committee) and time frame, should be completed before beginning the second semester of study. Successful performance on a four-hour written essay exam, plus a one-hour oral exam, is required of all M.S. and M.Ed. candidates near the completion of their course work for the degree. The master's candidate is required to successfully complete an oral defense of a paper or thesis.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

Two years of appropriate professional experience is required either prior to admission or before the doctoral degree is completed.


Other Relevant Information

Selection and appointment of a thesis adviser and doctoral committee follows admission to candidacy. The candidate consults the department head or graduate officer in selecting an adviser. The candidate, in cooperation with an adviser, selects the doctoral committee. The chair of the committee is not necessarily the thesis adviser, but the thesis adviser is a member of the committee.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION (AG ED)


400. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (3)
412. METHODS OF TEACHING AGRICULTURE* (4)
413. ADVANCED METHODOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION* (2)
418. SURVEY OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE (1-4)
424. OCCUPATIONAL GUIDANCE IN AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY* (1-4)
426. ADULT EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE (1-4)
434. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENTS (1-6)
440. (EXTED) COMMUNICATION METHODS AND MEDIA (3)
450. (EXTED) METHODOLOGY OF EXTENSION EDUCATION (3)
490. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
495. STUDENT TEACHING IN AGRICULTURE* (1-15)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-8)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

501. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES (1-3) Historical development, social and philosophical foundations, and current status in relation to the total vocational-technical education program.

502. TEACHING AGRICULTURE (1-3) Vocational education objectives, learning theory, class instruction, cooperative occupational experience, and evaluation.

507. ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION I (1-2) Basics of vocational funding, supervision, leadership, and management for agricultural education. Prerequisite: previous experience in agricultural education or vocational education.

508. ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION II (1-2) Basics of vocational funding, supervision, leadership, and management for agricultural education.

509. TEACHER EDUCATION IN AGRICULTURE (1-6) Organization and administration of university programs of teacher education in agriculture, including preservice preparation, continuing education, research and other services.

520. SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN THE STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION (1-4) Methods of procedure in investigation and experimentation in education, accompanied by a critical examination of studies made in agricultural education.

521. SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN THE STUDY OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION (1-4) Continuation of AG ED 520; emphasis upon statistical techniques for students' individual problems.

524. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION (1-3) Analysis of occupational needs of students and employment prospects; organization of courses of study and other activities of teachers.

530. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE TEACHING (3-4) Organization, planning, and delivery of effective teaching methods, matching teaching/learning styles, evaluation of instruction and learning.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


AGRONOMY (AGRO)


S. L. FALES, Head of the Department
116 Agricultural Sciences and Industries Building
814-865-6541


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.S., M.Agr.


The Graduate Faculty
Dale E. Baker, Ph.D. (Missouri) Professor Emeritus of Soil Chemistry
Douglas B. Beegle, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Agronomy
Jean-Marc Bollag, Ph.D. (Basel) Professor of Soil Microbiology
Jon D. Chorover, Ph.D. (California, Berkeley) Assistant Professor of Environmental Soil Chemistry
Edward J. Ciolkosz, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Professor of Soil Genesis and Morphology
Robert L. Cunningham, Ph.D. (Washington State) Professor Emeritus of Soil Genesis and Morphology
William S. Curran, Ph.D. (Illinois) Associate Professor of Weed Science
Rick L. Day, Ph.D. (Penn State) Affiliate Assistant Professor of Soil and Land Resources
Joseph M. Duich, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor Emeritus of Turfgrass Science
Steven L. Fales, Ph.D. (Purdue) Professor of Agronomy
Richard H. Fox, Ph.D. (Arizona) Professor of Soil Science
Daniel D. Fritton, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Professor of Soil Physics
David L. Gustine, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Adjunct Associate Professor of Crop Physiology
Jon K. Hall, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Soil Chemistry
Marvin H. Hall, Ph.D. (Minnesota) Associate Professor of Forage Management
Nathan L. Hartwig, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Professor of Weed Science
O. Elwood Hatley, Ph.D. (Purdue) Professor of Agronomy
David R. Huff, Ph.D. (California) Assistant Professor of Turfgrass Breeding
Leon J. Johnson, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor Emeritus of Soil Mineralogy
Melvin W. Johnson, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Plant Breeding
Daniel P. Knievel, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Crop Physiology
Sridhar Komarneni, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Professor of Clay Mineralogy
Peter J. Landschoot, Ph.D. (Rhode Island) Associate Professor of Turfgrass Science
Les E. Lanyon, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Associate Professor of Soil Fertility
Charles F. Mancino, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) Associate Professor of Turf/Soil Science
Gary W. Petersen, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Professor of Soil and Land Resources
Harry B. Pionke, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Adjunct Professor of Soil Science
Marvin L. Risius, Ph.D. (Cornell) Professor of Plant Breeding
Andrew S. Rogowski, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Adjunct Professor of Soil Physics
Gregory W. Roth, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Corn Management
Ronald R. Schnabel, Ph.D. (Washington State) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Soil Science
Andrew N. Sharpley, Ph.D. (Massey, New Zealand) Adjunct Professor of Soil Science
John S. Shenk, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Professor of Plant Breeding
James L. Starling, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor Emeritus of Agronomy
William L. Stout, Ph.D. (Penn State) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Soil Science
A. J. Turgeon, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Professor of Agronomy
Donald V. Waddington, Ph.D. (Massachusetts) Professor Emeritus of Soil Science
Thomas L. Watschke, Ph.D. (Virginia Polytechnic) Professor of Turfgrass Science

Agronomy graduate programs emphasize research that increases the efficiency of production of agronomic crops, improves the quality of food, feed, and fiber available for humans and animals, assists in the use and development of land resources, develops an understanding of the basic soilDplantDanimal climate complex of which humans are a part, and improves the overall quality of the human environment. Within this framework, students may specialize in soil science, crop science, or soil and crop management, including turfgrass management. Areas of specialization in soil science include chemistry, fertility, genesis and morphology, microbiology, mineralogy, and physics. Crop science specialities include breeding and genetics, ecology and management, physiology, and weed science.

Research facilities include a 340-acre experimental farm with irrigation facilities, a 22-acre turfgrass research center, and 18-acre landscape management research center, greenhouses, service areas, and a number of well-equipped experimental laboratories. The department enjoys close collaboration with three USDA research units--the Northeast Pasture Research Laboratory, the Northeast Watershed Research Center, and a small grains research unit, which add substantial strength to the research and graduate education capabilities of the department.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), or from a comparable substitute examination, are required for admission. At the discretion of the graduate standards committee, a student may be admitted provisionally for graduate study in the program without these scores. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

Prerequisites for major work in agronomy vary with the area of specialization and the degree sought, but courses in chemistry, mathematics, physics, geology, basic and applied biological sciences, and English communication skills are required. Applicants for the M.S. degree should have a baccalaureate degree including 76 credits of basic and applied natural sciences. For the M.Agr. degree program, an applicant must present a baccalaureate degree in agricultural or forest science.

A minimum junior/senior grade-point average 3.00 (on a 4.00 scale) is required in all courses in the biological and physical sciences regardless of when taken. Exceptions to these requirements may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests.

Admission to the Ph.D. program requires an M.S. or equivalent degree, and 100 credits (including credits of the baccalaureate degree) of basic and applied natural sciences. Applicants for the Ph.D. program will be evaluated on the quality of work completed in all previous degree programs.

Students who lack some of the prerequisite courses may be admitted but are required to take these courses without degree credit. The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces available for new students.


Master's Degree Requirements

In addition to the general requirements for the M.S. degree as defined by the Graduate School, the department requires 6 credits of 400- or 500-level formal courses in a minor or general studies area. Participation in at least one Agronomy seminar course each semester is required, and students must register for at least 1 credit of an Agronomy seminar. An advisory committee will be appointed for each student, and additional courses and requirements may be determined by this advisory committee.

A thesis based on field and/or laboratory research is required for the M.S. degree. Candidates for the M.Agr. degree may prepare a paper based on library research in lieu of a thesis.
Both M.S. and M.Agr. candidates must pass a final examination.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

Beyond the general requirements for the Ph.D. defined by the Graduate School, the department has a number of specific requirements regarding course level and distribution that are defined in the departmental publication "Graduate Degrees in Agronomy." While a minimum number of courses for the degree is not specified, the doctoral advisory committee has the responsibility of specifying courses and credits essential for the education and development of the candidate. Students are expected to be educated in depth in a specific subfield of agronomy and to have a perspective of the general field. Normally, 55 to 60 credits in formal course work beyond the B.S. degree are required. Doctoral candidates are required to participate regularly in a departmental seminar and to register for at least 2 credits of the seminar during the Ph.D. program.

The communication and foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree may be met either by demonstrating a knowledge of at least one foreign language or by completing at least 6 credits of course work in an area of English communications approved by the student's advisory committee.

In addition to the candidacy, comprehensive, and final oral examinations, the department requires a competency examination to be taken after a student passes the candidacy. The purpose of this examination is to determine the student's strengths and weaknesses in pertinent subject matter and to assist the committee in providing direction relative to required course work.


Other Relevant Information

Every student has a close professional relationship with his or her faculty adviser. While research that is done for the thesis will be on subjects that fall within the ongoing research program of the adviser, students are encouraged to propose research projects that are of interest to them. For the most part, all costs relative to the research program will be covered by the department. The department encourages professional development of students through participation in meetings of relevant professional societies and organizations.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


AGRONOMY (AGRO)
See also Soil Science.


402. CHEMISTRY OF SOILS AND FERTILIZERS (3)
403. PROPERTIES AND MANAGEMENT OF TROPICAL SOILS (2)
410. CROP SCIENCE (4)
423. FORAGE CROP MANAGEMENT (3)
425. FIELD CROP MANAGEMENT (3)
438. PRINCIPLES OF WEED CONTROL AND HERBICIDE PROPERTIES (4)
490. AGRONOMY COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
495. INTERNSHIP
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-9)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

501. SOIL FERTILITY (3) Soil-plant relations emphasizing recent concepts of ion accumulation by plants as affected by soil conditions and plant physiology. Prerequisites: BIOL 441, SOILS 402.

511. BIOMETRICAL PLANT BREEDING (3) Quantitative genetics of plant populations; application to breeding methodology and selection. Prerequisites: AGRO 512; 3 credits in plant breeding.

512. FIELD PLOT TECHNIQUE (4) Ramifications of analysis of variance techniques; combining and analyzing data from several experiments; selection of valid error terms. Prerequisite: AG 400 or STAT 200.

515. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CROP PLANTS (3) Biochemical, physiological, genetic, and morphological nature of crop plants related to animal response. Laboratory includes nutritive evaluation procedures. Prerequisites: 3 credits of crop production and 6 credits of biochemistry and/or nutrition.

517. CROP ECOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY (3) Ecological and physiological factors affecting the productivity of crop plants. Prerequisite: AGRO 410.

518. RESPONSES OF CROP PLANTS TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS (3) Physiological and ecological aspects of the response of crop plants to environmental stresses in establishment, persistence, and reproduction. Prerequisite: AGRO 410.

545. THE APPLICATION OF STATISTICS TO FIELD EXPERIMENTS (4) Use of advanced experimental designs in planning, analyzing, and interpreting experiments; includes lattice designs, factorials, confounding, simple and multiple covariance techniques. Prerequisite: AGRO 512.
590. (SOILS) AGRONOMY COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


AMERICAN STUDIES (AMSTD)


SIMON J. BRONNER, Coordinator, Graduate Program in American Studies
Penn State Harrisburg
777 W. Harrisburg Pike
Middletown, PA 17057-4898
717-948-6039; 717-948-6201


Degree Conferred: M.A.


The Graduate Faculty
Michael L. Barton, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania) Associate Professor of Social Science and American Studies
Simon J. Bronner, Ph.D. (Indiana) Distinguished Professor of Folklore and American Studies
Eton F. Churchill, M.F.A. (Tulane) Assistant Professor of Humanities and Multi-Media Journalism
Theodora R. Graham, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania) Associate Professor of Humanities and English
Allison Duncan Hirsch, Ph.D. (Columbia) Assistant Professor of American Studies and History
William J. Mahar, Ph.D. (Syracuse) Professor of Humanities and Music
John S. Patterson, Ph.D. (Brown) Associate Professor of American Studies and History
Irwin Richman, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania) Professor of American Studies and History
Matthew Wilson, Ph.D. (Rutgers) Associate Professor of Writing and Humanities

This program, offered at Penn State Harrisburg, emphasizes the interdisciplinary study of American society and culture. It provides the student with the opportunity to acquire knowledge in the fields of history, literature, media, material culture, museology, folklore, art, architecture, music, and to study the interrelationships linking those fields with important questions and issues in American life.

Strong ties with local educational and cultural institutions, including the State Museum of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Farm Museum of Landis Valley, Hershey Museum of American Life, and the Dauphin County Historical Society, provide excellent learning opportunities for interested students.

This degree can be earned by full- or part-time study. As a convenience for working students, all 500-level courses are offered in the evening, and every attempt is made to meet the student's individual needs.


Admission Requirements

Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

There are no course work prerequisites for admission to the master's program; however, a student must have received a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution, earned under residence and credit conditions substantially equivalent to those required by Penn State. The application, transcripts, two letters of recommendation, and a 1,000- to 1,500-word essay outlining personal goals and reasons for applying for admission to the program should be sent to Penn State Harrisburg, Graduate Office, 777 W. Harrisburg Pike, Middletown, PA 17057-4898. Submit materials for fall admission before February 15 and for spring admission before October 15.


Degree Requirements

The student is required to take a minimum of 30 credits, including at least 18 credits in the 500 series. An original scholarly master's paper or a creative project or a specialized examination is required for graduation. One to 6 credits in AMSTD 580 can be earned during work on the master's project.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


AMERICAN STUDIES (AMSTD)


REQUIRED COURSES

500. THEORY AND METHODS (3) Introduction to graduate work in American Studies through exploration of the approaches, materials, and interpretation of the field.

511. PIVOTAL BOOKS (3-9) Exploration of a number of books which have been particularly influential in shaping thinking about American Civilization.
530. TOPICS IN AMERICAN FOLKLORE (3) A detailed exploration of aspects of folklore and folklife in America.

533. AMERICAN CIVILIZATION IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY (3-9) Detailed investigation of specific topics in eighteenth-century American civilization.

534. AMERICAN CIVILIZATION IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY (3-9) Representative interdisciplinary investigation of social, historical, economic, and aesthetic forces predominant in nineteenth-century America.

535. AMERICAN CIVILIZATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY (3-9) Detailed investigation of specific periods or topics in twentieth-century American civilization.
570. TOPICS IN AMERICAN ART (1-6) Various themes within the American arts will be explored under this rubric.

575. MUSEUM INTERNSHIP (3) A supervised museum internship experience featuring a "hands-on" introduction into aspects of the curatorial profession. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

580. PROJECTS IN AMERICAN STUDIES (1-6) Independent exploration within American Studies; evidenced by major paper, film, exhibition or specialized examination.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
591. SEMINAR (3)
596. INDIVIDUAL (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

ADDITIONAL COURSES may be taken from the following list of American Studies courses and from 400-level courses in other fields with the concurrence of the student's adviser. Descriptions of these courses can be found in the Penn State Harrisburg Bulletin.
400. EARLY AMERICA, 1620-1828 (3)
403. AMERICAN IDEAS (3)
411. WOMEN IN AMERICAN SOCIETY (3)
422. WESTWARD MOVEMENT (3)
431. THE AMERICAN CHARACTER (3)
442. AMERICAN FOLKLORE (3)
451. CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION (3)
452. THE AMERICAN RENAISSANCE (3)
453. INDUSTRIAL AMERICA (3)
454. PARTIES AND POLITICS IN AMERICA (3)
455. AMERICANS AT WORK (3)
456. MASS CULTURE: THE POPULAR ARTS IN AMERICA (3)
457. ETHNIC AMERICA (3)
458. CONTEMPORARY AMERICA, 1945-PRESENT (3)
459. AMERICA'S COMING OF AGE 1914-1939 (3)
460. AMERICAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE (3)
462. MODERN ART AND ARCHITECTURE (3)
463. AMERICAN MUSIC (3)
469. AMERICAN INDIANS (3)
470. REGIONALISM IN AMERICA (3)
480. MUSEUMS AND CULTURE (3)
491. SEMINAR IN AMERICAN CULTURE (3)
495. INTERNSHIP (1-6)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


ANATOMY (ANAT)


ROBERT J. MILNER, Chair of the Department of Neuroscience and Anatomy
College of Medicine, University Hospital
The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center
Hershey, PA 17033
717-531-8650


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.S.


The Graduate Faculty
Kevin Alloway, Ph.D. (Indiana) Assistant Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy
James R. Connor, Ph.D. (California, Berkeley) Associate Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy
Ellen J. Hess, Ph.D. (California, San Diego) Assistant Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy
Linda Larson-Prior, Ph.D. (Kent State) Assistant Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy
Alphonse E. Leure-duPree, Ph.D. (London) Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy
Erich Lieth, Ph.D. (North Carolina, Chapel Hill) Assistant Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy
Steve Levison, Ph.D. (North Carolina, Chapel Hill) Assistant Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy
Robert B. Page, M.D. (Columbia) Professor of Neurosurgery and Neuroscience and Anatomy
Thomas C. Pritchard, Ph.D. (Delaware) Assistant Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy and Behavioral
Science
Teresa Wood, Ph.D. (UCLA) Assistant Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy
Ian S. Zagon, Ph.D. (Colorado) Professor of Neuroscience and Anatomy

The graduate program emphasizes the general areas of gross anatomy, history, histology/cytology, neuroanatomy/neurophysiology, or appropriate combinations of these areas. Approaches offered include morphological (descriptive, comparative, developmental), functional (physiological, chemical), and experimental.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), or from a comparable substitute examination accepted by a graduate program and authorized by the dean of the Graduate School, are required for admission. At the discretion of a graduate program, a student may be admitted provisionally for graduate study in a program without these scores. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

A bachelor's degree reflecting a reasonable background in zoology, biology, mathematics, or chemistry is required. Students with a 3.00 junior/senior average and with appropriate course backgrounds will be considered for admission. The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students. Exceptions to the minimum 3.00 grade-point average may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests. Applicants must provide complete transcripts and two letters of recommendation. A personal interview is desirable.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

The communication and foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree may be satisfied by intermediate knowledge of one foreign language.


Other Relevant Information
This program is offered only at The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ANATOMY (ANAT)

503. GROSS ANATOMY (6) Gross structure, organization, and function of the human body, with laboratories devoted to dissection of the human body.

505. HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY I (2) Light and electron microscopic structure of cells, specialized tissues, organization, basic organogenesis, correlation between cellular structure and physiological function.

506. HISTOLOGY AND EMBRYOLOGY II (2) Continuation of ANAT 505; microscopic structure of cells, specialized tissues, organization, basic organogenesis, correlation between cellular structure and physiological function. Prerequisite: ANAT 505.

511. (NEURO) NEUROBIOLOGY II (3) Structure and physiology of central and peripheral nervous system, including specific sense organs.

512. HUMAN EMBRYOLOGY AND TERATOLOGY (2) Study of developing human embryo, including gamete production and fusion, implantation, organogenesis, and major abnormalities of organ systems.
515. (NEURO) DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY (2) Development of the nervous system in all aspects.

530. DISSECTION (2-4) Intensive laboratory study of selected regions of the human body. Coverage and credit arranged by consultation.

542. COMPARATIVE NEUROLOGY (3) Topics in functional anatomy and neurophysiology. The comparative approach to the organization of the mammalian nervous system will be stressed. Prerequisite: ANAT 511 or NEURO 511.

543. SENSORY PROCESSES (3) Morphological, physiological, and psychophysical aspects of mammalian sensory systems; emphasizing somatic, sensory, visual, and auditory systems. Prerequisite: ANAT 511 or NEURO 511.

544. DEVELOPMENT AND REGENERATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM (3) Current problems in both development and regeneration in the nervous system based on research problems encountered in the literature. Prerequisites: neurobiology, microscopic anatomy, and biological chemistry.

545. COMPARATIVE AUDITORY AND VISUAL ANATOMY (3) An introduction to the morphology and evolution of the vertebrate eye and ear; individualized laboratory work arranged by consultation.

546. (CMBIO) CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT (2) This course evaluates developmental processes at the cellular and molecular level, with an emphasis on the regulatory mechanisms involved.

550. (CMBIO) QUANTITATIVE OPTICS AND CYTOLOGY (3) Study of the various types of light microscopy instruments and application of these tools to quantitative measurements in biological systems.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


ANIMAL SCIENCE (AN SC)


DANIEL R. HAGEN, Interim Head of the Department of Dairy and Animal Science
324 Henning Building
814-863-3665


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.S., M.Agr.


The Graduate Faculty
Guy F. Barbato, Ph.D. (Virginia Polytechnic) Associate Professor of Poultry Science
Craig R. Baumrucker, Ph.D. (Purdue) Professor of Animal Nutrition/Physiology
Erskine H. Cash, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Professor of Animal Science
John W. Comerford, Ph.D. (Georgia) Associate Professor of Dairy and Animal Science
Stanley E. Curtis, Ph.D. (Purdue) Professor of Animal Sciences
Daniel R. Deaver, Ph.D. (West Virginia) Professor of Animal Science
Clair C. Engle, Ph.D. (Georgia) Associate Professor of Animal Science
Terry D. Etherton, Ph.D. (Minnesota) Professor of Animal Nutrition
Daniel R. Hagen, Ph.D. (Illinois) Professor of Animal Science
George L. Hargrove, Ph.D. (North Carolina State) Professor of Dairy Science
Harold W. Harpster, Ph.D. (Michigan State) Associate Professor of Animal Nutrition
C. William Heald, Ph.D. (Virginia Polytechnic) Professor of Dairy Science
Arlyn J. Heinrichs, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Professor of Dairy and Animal Science
William R. Henning, Ph.D.. (Kentucky) Associate Professor of Animal Science
Lisa A. Holden, Assistant Professor of Dairy and Animal Science
R. Michael Hulet, Ph.D. (Texas A&M) Associate Professor of Poultry Science
Ronald S. Kensinger, Ph.D. (Florida) Associate Professor of Animal Nutrition/Physiology
Kenneth B. Kephart, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Animal Science
Gary J. Killian, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor of Reproductive Physiology
Roland M. Leach, Ph.D. (Cornell) Professor of Poultry Science
Magdi M. Mashaly, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Poultry Science
Edward W. Mills, Ph.D. (Purdue) Associate Professor of Dairy and Animal Science
Lawrence D. Muller, Ph.D. (Purdue) Professor of Dairy Science
Michael L. O'Connor, Ph.D. (Virginia Polytechnic) Professor of Dairy Science
Paul H. Patterson, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Assistant Professor of Poultry Science
Gary W. Rogers, Ph.D. (North Carolina State) Associate Professor of Dairy and Animal Science
William B. Roush, Ph.D. (Oregon State) Associate Professor of Poultry Science
Paul R. Shellenberger, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Professor of Dairy Science
Herbert S. Siegel, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor of Poultry Science
Gabriella A. Varga, Ph.D. (Maryland) Associate Professor of Animal Science
Regina Vasilatos-Younken, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Poultry Science
Paul J. Wangsness, Ph.D. (Iowa State) Professor of Animal Nutrition
William D. Weaver, Jr., Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor and Head of Poultry Science
Lowell L. Wilson, Ph.D. (South Dakota State) Professor of Animal Science

Students may specialize in animal care and management, breeding and genetics, growth and development, lactational biology, nutrition, or reproductive biology. Well-equipped research laboratories and various agricultural animals, as well as small-animal models and wildlife species, are available.


Admission Requirements

Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin. Prerequisite to graduate work is the completion of an undergraduate major in animal science, dairy science, poultry science, or a related biological science.

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) are required for admission (average percentile at least 50 percent in verbal, quantitative, and analytical components). The GRE testing program will change significantly in 1997. The quantitative reasoning component is recommended, but the program will accept scores from the mathematical reasoning component. Students with a 3.00 junior/senior grade-point average (on a 4.00 scale) and with appropriate course backgrounds will be considered for admission on a competitive basis.

Exceptions to admission requirements may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests.


Degree Requirements

The M.Agr. is a professional program designed to prepare individuals for specialist and management positions in county agricultural extension, government, or industry and does not require a thesis. The academic M.S. and Ph.D. programs require a thesis and are designed for those primarily interested in education and research. The requirements of these programs are detailed in the departmental publication "Graduate Student Handbook--Animal Science." The communication or foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree may be satisfied by competence in either one foreign language or communication skills.


Student Aid

Fellowships, traineeships, graduate assistantships, and other forms of financial aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ANIMAL SCIENCE (AN SC)


406. SWINE MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTION (3)
407. ADVANCED HORSE PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT (2)
408. SHEEP PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT (3)
409. BEEF PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT (3)
410. DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT (4)
420. ANIMAL NUTRITION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY (2)
427. MILK SECRETION (3)
431. PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS (3)
442. QUANTITATIVE INHERITANCE AND ANIMAL BREEDING (3)
490. ANIMAL SCIENCE COLLOQUIUM (1)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

502. SCIENTIFIC SCHOLARSHIP (2) Consideration of the scientific method and thinking relative to scholarship, grantsmanship, and the mechanism of grantsmanship.

506. RUMINOLOGY (3) Physiological, biochemical, and microbiological activities occurring within the rumen, and the relation of rumen function to animal response. Prerequisites: at least one course in each of the following areas: Animal Nutrition, Physiology, Microbiology, and Biochemistry.

510. ANIMAL SCIENCE RESEARCH METHODS (3) Application of scientific method; experimental design and procedures; analyzing, interpreting, and reporting research results. Prerequisite: 3 credits of 400-level statistics.

514. ANIMAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (3) Cellular, metabolic, and nutritional aspects of fetal and postnatal tissue growth; role of the endocrine system in regulation of animal growth. Prerequisites: 3 credits in biochemistry; 3 credits in physiology.

515. ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS (1-6) Advanced physiology of reproduction in farm animals. Prerequisite: 3 credits in physiology.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597, 598. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


ANTHROPOLOGY (ANTH)


DEAN R. SNOW, Head
Department of Anthropology
409 Carpenter Building
814-865-2509
814-863-1474 (fax)


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.A.


The Graduate Faculty
William S. Abruzzi, Ph.D. (SUNY, Binghamton) Associate Professor of Anthropology
Stephen J. Beckerman, Ph.D. (New Mexico) Associate Professor of Anthropology
Patricia A. Draper, Ph.D. (Harvard) Professor of Anthropology and Human Development
Henry C. Harpending, Ph.D. (Harvard) Professor of Anthropology and Human Development
James W. Hatch, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Anthropology
Alexander H. Joffe, Ph.D. (U Arizona) Assistant Professor of Anthropology and Jewish Studies
Patricia L. Johnson, Ph.D. (Michigan) Associate Professor of Anthropology and Women's Studies
Jeffrey A. Kurland, Ph.D. (Harvard) Associate Professor of Anthropology and Human Development
George R. Milner, Ph.D. (Northwestern) Professor of Anthropology
Warren T. Morrill, Ph.D. (Chicago) Professor of Anthropology
William T. Sanders, Ph.D. (Harvard) Evan Pugh Professor Emeritus of Anthropology
Dean R. Snow, Ph.D. (U Oregon) Professor and Head of Anthropology
Mark Stoneking, Ph.D. (California, Berkeley) Associate Professor of Anthropology
Alan Walker, Ph.D. (U London) Professor of Anthropology and Biology
David L. Webster, Ph.D. (Minnesota) Professor of Anthropology
Gary S. Webster, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Anthropology
Kenneth M. Weiss, Ph.D. (Michigan) Distinguished Professor of Anthropology
James W. Wood, Ph.D. (U. Michigan) Professor of Anthropology

The master's program is designed to train students in general anthropology. The doctoral program is structured to train students in the following areas of specialization: ethnology (with subspecialization in social anthropology, demographic anthropology, cultural evolution, and ecology); archaeology (with subspecialization in cultural ecology, analytical approaches, technological methods, and culture areas); biological anthropology (with subspecialization in human adaptability, genetics, biological demography, human evolution, and the behavioral biology of human and non-human primates).


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), or from a comparable substitute examination accepted by a graduate program and authorized by the dean of the Graduate School, are required for admission. At the discretion of a graduate program, a student may be admitted provisionally for graduate study in a program without these scores. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

Undergraduate preparation must include 12 credits in anthropology and archaeology or their equivalent. A student with an excellent record but who does not meet these requirements may be admitted provided course deficiencies are made up without graduate credit. Students with a 3.00 or higher junior/senior average (on a 4.00 scale) and with appropriate course backgrounds who have research interests directly related to the special anthropological competencies within the department will be considered for admission. The best- qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students. Exceptions to the minimum 3.00 grade-point average may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests.


Master's Degree Requirements

M.A. candidates may submit either a thesis or a term paper. If the latter is chosen, 6 credits in 500-level courses in the major field must be scheduled in lieu of thesis credits. The M.A. degree may be bypassed by exceptional candidates for the Ph.D. degree.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

The communication and foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. degree includes a reading knowledge of a foreign language plus an option from among additional foreign languages, field languages, linguistics, or statistics.


Student Aid

In addition to the fellowships, traineeships, graduate assistantships, and other forms of financial aid described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin, the following award typically has been available to post-comprehensive graduate students in this program:

HILL FELLOWSHIPS FOR STUDY IN ANTHROPOLOGY--Details available from Professor Dean R. Snow, Department of Anthropology, 409 Carpenter Building.


ANTHROPOLOGY (ANTH)


401. HUMAN EVOLUTION: THE MATERIAL EVIDENCE (3)
405. PRIMATOLOGY (3)
408. ANTHROPOLOGICAL DEMOGRAPHY (3)
409. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL DATA (2)
410. OSTEOLOGY LABORATORY (1)
420. ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE NEAR EAST (3)
422. MESOAMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY (4)
423. THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURE (4)
440. SOUTH AMERICAN TRIBAL SOCIETIES (3)
450. COMPARATIVE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION (3)
451. ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY (3)
453. (SOC) RELIGION OF TRADITIONAL PEOPLES (3)
454. POLITICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (3)
456. CULTURAL ECOLOGY (3)
457. LANGUAGE IN CULTURE (3)
460. (BIOL) HUMAN GENETICS (3)
464. (BIOL) SOCIOBIOLOGY (3)
471. HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY I (3)
472. HUMAN EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY II (3)
473. GENES, PEOPLES, AND DISEASES (3)
474. ECOLOGY OF GENDER (3)
475. THE BIOMETRY OF HUMAN REPRODUCTION (3)
476. (WMNST) ANTHROPOLOGY OF GENDER (3)
488. ARCHAEOLOGICAL METHODS AND THEORY (3)
492. INTERMEDIATE FIELD METHODS (3-6)
493. FIELD TECHNIQUES (3-6)
495. INTERNSHIP IN MEDICAL ANTHROPOLOGY (6-9)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

501. HUMAN EVOLUTION: THE MATERIAL EVIDENCE (4) Human origins as seen in the fossil record and comparative biology of humans and their primate relatives.
508. RESEARCH PROBLEMS IN CULTURAL HISTORY (3-9)

509. RESEARCH DESIGN IN ANTHROPOLOGICAL FIELDWORK (3) A survey of research design, sampling strategies, potential biases, confounding problems, and the limits of inference in anthropological fieldwork. Prerequisite: STAT 451.

511. (HL ED) HEALTH IMPLIATIONS IN THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL CHILDREN (3) Child growth and development emphasis for teachers; medical inspection and examination; preschool program; early habit formations; behavior problems.

513. (HL ED) HEALTH IMPLICATIONS IN MATURITY AND AGING (3) Changes in the human body in maturity and aging; mechanisms of physiologic aging; implications for health and preventive medicine. Prerequisite: ANTH (HL ED) 511.
515. ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS (3) Analysis of ethnographic methods used in studying different cultures.

522-523. ECOLOGICAL THEORY IN ANTHROPOLOGY (3 each) Human biology, culture history, and culture variation from the ecological perspective. Two-semester enrollment required. Prerequisite: 6 credits in anthropology.

530. INDIVIDUAL READINGS IN ANTHROPOLOGY (1-6) Reading or research in selected aspects of general anthropology.
531. INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH IN ANTHROPOLOGY (3-12)
545. SEMINAR IN ANTHROPOLOGY (1-9) Critical analysis of research in selected areas of anthropology.

556. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES (3) Cultural bases of social organization of traditional societies.

557. BEHAVIORAL ANTHROPOLOGY I: COGNITION (3) Cognitive anthropology, emphasizing kinship systems, cultural categories, and anthropological linguistics.

559. BEHAVIORAL ANTHROPOLOGY III: ECOLOGY (3) Ecological anthropology, emphasizing the adaptive aspects of subsistence, including foraging and settlement pattern.

560. HISTORY OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY (3) Survey of origin and development of anthropology in the nineteenth century and trends during the twentieth century. Prerequisite: ANTH 450.

561. FIELD METHODS IN ANTHROPOLOGY (3-9) Individual fieldwork in any aspect of anthropology, supervised by staff of professional rank.

562. LABORATORY METHODS IN ANTHROPOLOGY (3-9) Supervised laboratory research, utilizing materials from physical anthropology, archaeology, or cultural anthropology.

564. TOPICS IN SOCIOBIOLOGY AND BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY (3-6) Critical analysis of specialized topics in sociobiology and behavioral ecology. Prerequisite: an introductory course in anthropology or biology.
565. (WMNST) WOMEN AND DEVELOPMENT (3) Interaction of women and development.

571. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN POPULATION BIOLOGY I (3) Mechanisms and quantification of human genetic variation and survey of evolutionary aspects of human ecology, life cycle, and population biology.

572. PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN POPULATION BIOLOGY II (3) How human genetic variation is detected, the assessment of human quantitative genetic traits, and application to the human fossil record.

573. GENETICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY (3) Epidemiological and genetic approaches to understanding patterns of difference in disease susceptibility and their evolution in human populations. Prerequisites: ANTH 460 or BIOL 428; STAT 250 or 301.

588. METHOD AND THEORY IN ARCHAEOLOGY (4) Methodological strategies and tactics in archaeological research; major theories in cultural anthropology as applied to archaeological data.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)

593. (BIOL, ENT, GEOSC, INTAG) TROPICAL FIELD STUDIES (Organization for Tropical Studies) (8) An intensive field course concentrating on field problems, experimental design, and data analysis in tropical habitats. Prerequisite: approval by the Committee on Tropical Studies.
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY

NOTE: Information in printed version of 1996-98 Graduate Degree Programs Bulletin contains some inaccurate Applied Psychology program information. This information supersedes that version.

THOMAS G. BOWERS, Coordinator

Penn State Harrisburg

Middletown, PA  17057

717-948-6063

Degree Conferred: M.A.

The Graduate Faculty


Michael A. Becker, Ph.D. (SUNY, Albany) Associate Professor of Psychology
Thomas G. Bowers, Ph.D. (Virginia Polytechnic) Associate Professor of Psychology
Barbara A. Bremer, Ph.D. (Bryn Mawr) Assistant Professor of Psychology
Richard M. Foxx, Ph.D. (Illinois) Professor of Psychology
Rita M. Shell, Ph.D. (Arizona State) Assistant Professor of Psychology

The aim of the program, offered at Penn State Harrisburg, is to train and educate students to provide applied services as mental health professionals. Graduates of the program work under the supervision of independent practitioners or in agency settings. Training will focus on : providing clinical/behavioral services to individuals, families, and groups; developing, administering, and interpreting evaluation methods; understanding the principles of behavioral assessment; and developing and promoting prevention and health programs. Content areas will include psychopathology, addictions, health and health behaviors, prevention, and developmental psychopathology. Practicum experiences will be required to allow for supervised applications of the training and academic experiences.

The Applied Psychology program will be concerned with providing students with the fundamentals of theory, practice, and research within the areas of psychopathology, treatment, prevention, and health. The program will provide 22 credits of skill-based education, with 15 credits of research education.

Admission Requirements

Students will be admitted on a competitive basis, based on the following criteria: (1) a completed bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited academic institution, with at least 18 credits in psychology, with a cumulative grade-point average (GPA) of 3.00 or above in the last 60 credits; (2) undergraduate course work must include a statistics course and a psychology research methods course with grades of B or above; (3) scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) are required in the verbal, quantitative, and analytic portions; (4) three letters of recommendation; and (5) a brief (two-page) interest statement.

Degree Requirements

Requirement for the M.A. in Applied Psychology include 37 credits in required courses including the master's project and 3 credits in electives, for a total of 40 credits. With the consent of the student's faculty adviser, up to 3 graduate-level credits from other programs may be used as electives.

APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY (PSYC)

400. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY (3)

402. EXPERIMENTAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (3)

403. ADULT DEVELOPMENT (3)

405. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (3)

406. ADOLESCENCE (3)

409. CHILD BEHAVIOR DISORDERS (3)

412. HISTORY AND SYSTEMS OF PSYCHOLOGY (3)

415. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY (3)

421. BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION (3)

424. PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY (3)

425. COGNITION AND PERCEPTION (3)

427. LEARNING THEORY (3)

444. TREATMENT AND EDUCATION IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES (3)

450. STATISTICS AND DESIGN I (4)

451. STATISTICS AND DESIGN II (4)

465. PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN (3)

470. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS WITH SPSS (3)

482. PERSONALITY THEORY (3)

492. CURRENT TOPICS IN PSYCHOLOGY (3)

494. RESEARCH PROJECT (1-12)

496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)

497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

511. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY (3) A broad spectrum view of psychopathology including biological, social, cognitive, psychological, and neuropsychological approaches, is emphasized, with an applied focus. Prerequisite: admission to program.

512. THEORIES AND MODELS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY (3) An advanced level of psychotherapies and applications in diverse settings. Prerequisite: PSYC 511, admission to the program.

514. PREVENTIVE PSYCHOLOGY (3) Focuses on the theoretical, conceptual, programmatic, and empirical issues currently in preventive psychology. Prerequisite: PSYC 520.

515. CLINICAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY (3) Examines wellness maintenance, early detection, and the impact of health care on individuals and the community. Prerequisite: PSYC 514 or PSYC 400.

520. RESEARCH METHODS (3) Prerequisites: SCLSC 470 and admission to program.

530. RESEARCH PAPER (3) Supervised research in psychology for degree candidates. Prerequisites: PSYC 520, SCLSC 470, and permission of the program.

535. BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT (3) Analysis of determinants of behavior and behavioral ecology. Emphasis on data collection and data evaluation techniques.

571. TESTS AND MEASUREMENT (4) Administration, analysis, and interpretation of psychological evaluation methods will be reviewed. Prerequisite: SCLSC 470 and admission to program.

572. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT (3) Course will review the biological bases of behavior, emphasizing brain-behavioral relationships and assessment of these relationships. Prerequisite: PSYC 571.

595. INTERNSHIP (1-18)

596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)

597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING (A E)


ANTONIO NANNI, Graduate Program Officer
212 Engineering A Building
814-863-2084


Degree Conferred: Ph.D., M.S.


The Graduate Faculty
William P. Bahnfleth, Ph.D. (Illinois) Assistant Professor of Architectural Engineering
Craig A. Bernecker, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Architectural Engineering
Thomas E. Boothby, Ph.D. (Washington) Assistant Professor of Architectural Engineering
Hossam El-Bibany, Ph.D. (Stanford) Assistant Professor of Architectural Engineering
Louis F. Geschwindner, Ph.D. (Penn State) Professor of Architectural Engineering
Richard G. Mistrick, Ph.D. (Penn State) Assistant Professor of Architectural Engineering
Stanley A. Mumma, Ph.D. (Illinois) Professor of Architectural Engineering
Antonio Nanni, Ph.D. (Miami) Professor of Architectural Engineering
Amr A. Oloufa, Ph.D. (Berkeley) Assistant Professor of Architectural Engineering
M. Kevin Parfitt, M.Eng. (Cornell) Associate Professor of Architectural Engineering
Victor E. Sanvido, Ph.D. (Stanford) Associate Professor of Architectural Engineering
Grenville K. Yuill, Ph.D. (University of Minnesota) Professor of Architectural Engineering

Students may specialize in building construction, building illumination and electrical systems, building mechanical and energy systems, or building structural systems.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) are required for admission. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

Graduate students in Architectural Engineering generally come into their program of study with an undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, architectural engineering, or architecture. Students with a 3.00 junior/senior grade-point average (on a 4.00 scale) and with appropriate course backgrounds will be considered for admission. The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students.


Degree Requirements
Continuous registration is required for all graduate students until the thesis is approved.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING (A E)


401. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BUILDINGS (3)
402. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BUILDINGS (3)
403. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BUILDINGS (3)
430. INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES (3)
431. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF BUILDINGS (3)
439. MODERN STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS (3)
454. ADVANCED HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING (3)
455. ADVANCED HEATING, VENTILATING, AND AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM DESIGN (3)
456. SOLAR ENERGY BUILDING SYSTEM DESIGN (3)
457. SOLAR PASSIVE DESIGN AND ENERGY CONSERVATION (3)
458. ADVANCED ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS AND NOISE CONTROL (3)
461. BASIC THEORY OF BUILDING ILLUMINATION (3)
464. ADVANCED ARCHITECTURAL ILLUMINATION SYSTEMS DESIGN (3)
467. ADVANCED BUILDING ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DESIGN (3)
470. RESIDENTIAL BUILDING DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION (3)
475. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING I (3)
476. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING II (3)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

520. ROOM AND BUILDING ACOUSTICS (4) Sound propagation in enclosures. Transmission through partitions. Design of spaces for optimum listening and industrial buildings for low noise. Prerequisites:
A E 458, ACS 402.

532. CONCRETE STRUCTURES REINFORCED WITH FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS (3) Physico-chemical, mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP); manufacturing of FRP; performance, analysis, and design of FRP reinforced concrete structures. Prerequisite: A E 402.

535. DESIGN AND THEORY OF MASONRY STRUCTURES (3) Analysis and design of unreinforced and reinforced masonry structures: masonry properties, beams, walls, pilasters, shear walls, arches, and systems. Prerequisites: A E 402 or C E 441; A E 308 or C E 240.

540. CONSTRUCTION PROJECT ORGANIZATION AND CONTROL (3) Applications of productivity improvement; organizational; behavioral; and modeling techniques to solve construction project problems; case studies; development of audit manual. Prerequisites: A E 372, 475, or 476.

541. COMPUTER INTEGRATED CONSTRUCTION (3) Design/development of information systems to support facility management, design construction, operations; information architectures, product/process models, advanced computer tools. Prerequisite: A E 540.

545. ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING SEMINAR (1-6) Current literature and special problems in architectural engineering; presentation of technical papers.

552. AIR QUALITY IN BUILDINGS (3) Indoor air pollutants, their sources and health effects; transport of pollutants; modeling of pollutant concentration in buildings. Perquisites: A E 454, 455, M E 412.

553. BUILDING ENERGY ANALYSIS (3) Fundamental principles and engineering procedures for the computer simulation of the energy flows in buildings and their HVAC systems. Prerequisite: A E 454.

554. BUILDING THERMAL SYSTEMS DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION (3) A study of building thermal comfort systems emphasizing analytical peak and off-peak design performance modeling, simulation, optimization, and economics. Prerequisite: A E 454.

555. BUILDING AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS (3) Advanced techniques in the theoretical analysis and practical design of the automatic comfort controls used in building thermal systems. Prerequisite: A E 554.

556. SOLAR ENGINEERING OF THERMAL PROCESSES (3) Advanced quantitative methods of predicting transient active and passive solar process performance with an emphasis on building solar applications. Prerequisite: M E 412.

565. DAYLIGHTING (3) Daylight design and delivery techniques, design issues; daylight availability, the lumen method of daylight analysis, advanced prediction models, controls. Prerequisite: A E 461 or concurrent.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
594. RESEARCH TOPICS (1-18)
594. RESEARCH TOPICS (1-18)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


ARCHITECTURE (ARCH)


SIDNEY COHN, In Charge of Graduate Program in Architecture
206 Engineering Unit C
814-865-0876


Degree Conferred: M.S.


The Graduate Faculty
Arthur K. Anderson, Jr., M.F.A. (Princeton) Associate Professor of Architecture
Pier Luigi Bandini, Lau.Arch. (U. of Florence, Italy) Associate Professor of Architecture
Sidney Cohn, Ph.D. (North Carolina, Chapel Hill) Professor of Urban Design
Michael E. Fifield, M.Arch. (UCLA) Professor of Architecture
Amy Forsyth, M.Arch. (Princeton) Assistant Professor of Architecture
Gideon Golany, Ph.D. (Hebrew, Jerusalem) Distinguished Professor of Urban Design
Jawaid Haider, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Architecture
Louis Inserra, M.Arch. (Yale) Professor of Architecture
Loukas Kalisperis, Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Architecture
James Kalsbeek, M.S. Arch. (Cincinnati) Associate Professor of Architecture
Donald E. Kunze, Jr., Ph.D. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Architecture and Integrative Arts
Howard R. Lawrence, M.A. (California, Berkeley) Assistant Professor of Architecture
Don A. Leon, M.S.Arch. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Architecture
John P. Lucas, M.Arch. (North Carolina State) Professor of Architecture
Romolo Martemucci, M.S.Urb.Des. (Pratt Institute) Associate Professor of Architecture
Raymon J. Masters, M.S.Arch.Eng. (Penn State) Affiliate Associate Professor of Architecture
Wladyslaw A. Strumillo, Ph.D. (Polytechnic, Warsaw) Associate Professor Emeritus of Architecture
Daniel Willis, M.S.Arch. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Architecture

The Master of Science is an academic degree; it is not a professionally accredited degree. It is intended for students with professional degrees in architecture and, in exceptional cases, for students with non- professional architectural degrees, who seek to develop a better understanding of the principles and theory that underlie the profession of architecture. The program emphasizes the application of theory and inquiry to architectural and urban design. Advanced study is offered in selected areas defined by faculty expertise such as: architectural theory; computer application and representation; design/planning methods; urban design; environment-behavior theory; and the design of public spaces. The program is small and flexible and offers the opportunity to pursue individual goals, independent inquiry and research, and interdisciplinary study.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) or from a comparable substitute examination accepted by a graduate program and authorized by the dean of the Graduate School are required for admission. At the discretion of the graduate faculty, a student may be admitted provisionally for graduate study in a program withou;these scores. The GRE testing program will change significantly in 1997. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

The Graduate School establishes specific requirements regarding the TOEFL exam for international students. In addition to those requirements, the Department of Architecture requires that international students whose first language is not English or who have not received baccalaureate or master's degrees from an institution in which the language of instruction is English must take the TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) and the Test of Spoken English (TSE). A score on the TOEFL of 580 or higher and on the TSE of 250 or higher is required for regular admission. Applicants with scores on the TOEFL below 580 but above 550 or on the TSE below 250 but higher than 215 may be admitted provisionally.

Students with a 3.00 junior/senior grade-point average (on a 4.00 scale) and with appropriate course backgrounds will be considered for admission. Exceptions to the minimum 3.00 average may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests.

All applicants must submit (1) a minimum of three statements of recommendation from faculty members acquainted with the applicant's academic history and/or recommendations by an undergraduate review committee; (2) a paper of no more than 500 words, consisting primarily of a description of the applicant's professional goals, his or her desired areas or subjects of study, and the area(s) of anticipated research or inquiry; and (3) a portfolio of design work (architecture and planning projects) executed at the undergraduate level or under professional guidance, or independently, provided that such work can be evidenced as executed by the applicant. A minimum portfolio representation of one project for each year of academic undergraduate study, or its equivalent, is required.

The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students.


Degree Requirements

A total of 30 credits, including a thesis, are required for the Master of Science degree. The thesis may include a design project component. The required course work includes: a required core of 14 credits consisting of research studio (6 credits), theory (3 credits), methods of research and inquiry (3 credits), and Colloquium (2 credits); a concentration area (6 credits); electives (4 credits); and thesis (6 credits).


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin. All applicants who are accepted are considered for departmental financial aid.


ARCHITECTURE (ARCH)


411. PLANNING AND DESIGN WITH CLIMATE (3)
451. ARCHITECTURAL PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE (3)
480. TECHNICAL SYSTEMS INTEGRATION (3)
481. ADVANCED ARCHITECTURAL DATA SYSTEMS I (3)
482. ADVANCED ARCHITECTURAL DATA SYSTEMS II (3)
491. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN--THESIS I (6)
492. ARCHITECTURE DESIGN--THESIS II (6)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

511. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN ARCHITECTURE (3) The impact of rationalism and romanticism on contemporary developments and theoretical postures in architectural design.

514. APPLYING ENVIRONMENT-BEHAVIOR RESEARCH TO ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DESIGN (3) Application of environment- behavior research to the design and evaluation of architectural and urban settings. Prerequisite: 6 credits in psychology, sociology, or related behavioral science courses.

520. METHODS OF INQUIRY IN ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DESIGN (3) Introduction to the methods of research and inquiry commonly used in architecture and urban design.

522. COMPUTATION METHODS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN (3) Inquiry into the process of integrating computers in architectural design based on science, rationality, and language paradigms in architectural computing.
536. DESIGN INQUIRY (1-12) Integration of research with the designing of architectural and urban settings.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
591. ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH (2-12) Guided research project.
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


Integrated B.Arch.DM.S.Arch. Program

The Department of Architecture offers a limited number of academically superior students enrolled in the fourth year of the program leading to a Bachelor of Architecture degree the opportunity to enroll in an integrated program leading to both the B.Arch. and the Master of Science in Architecture degrees. The program permits the student to integrate the fifth year of study for the professional B.Arch. degree with the program of study for the M.S.Arch. degree into a continuous program of study culminating in both degrees. The ability to coordinate as well as concurrently pursue the two degree programs enables the student to achieve greater depth and comprehensiveness than if the degrees are pursued sequentially and to earn the two degrees in a shorter period. In particular, the program encourages the student to integrate the undergraduate thesis design project with the master's thesis, thereby achieving a greater depth of inquiry.

The number of openings to this special program is limited; admission is by invitation of the faculty and is extremely selective.


Admission Requirements

Applicants to the integrated program must be enrolled in the fourth year of a B.S.Arch. program or otherwise qualified to apply for admission to the fifth year of the B.Arch. program at Penn State. To be admitted, applicants must be able to meet the following requirements:

--Must have completed a B.S.Arch., or other degree qualifying for admission to the B.Arch. program, prior to entry into the Integrated Degree program.
--Must be unconditionally accepted into the fifth year of the B.Arch. program at Penn State.

--Must be unprovisionally accepted into the M.S.Arch. program at Penn State (see application requirements for the M.S.Arch. degree in the Penn State Graduate Degree Programs Bulletin).

--Must have a minimum 3.20 junior/senior overall grade-point average (on a 4.0 scale) as well as: (1) a minimum 3.20 GPA in architectural design courses (studio), and (2) a minimum 3.20 GPA in all course work except architectural design courses (studio).

--In addition to the normal application requirements for the M.S.Arch. degree, the student applicant shall provide a Plan of Study of not more than 1,500 words. The plan shall clearly describe the student's proposed general thesis topic and a strategy for pursuing it, including a list of proposed courses and a list of faculty whom the student foresees as contributing to the course of study.

The best-qualified students will be accepted up to the number of spaces available for new students. Acceptance to the program prior to the completion of all required course work is provisional, contingent upon meeting the previous requirements.


ART (ART)


CHRISTOPHER P. STALEY, In Charge of Graduate Programs in Art
210 Patterson Building
814-865-0444


Degrees Conferred: M.A., M.F.A.


The Graduate Faculty
Micaela Amato, M.F.A. (Colorado) Associate Professor of Art and Women's Studies
Kristin Breslin, M.F.A. (Tyler School of Art) Associate Professor of Art
Charles S. Cave, B.F.A. (Miami University, Ohio) Associate Professor of Art
John A. Cook, M.F.A. (Iowa) Professor Emeritus of Art
David R. DonTigny, M.A. (Montana) Professor Emeritus of Art
Robin L. Gibson, M.F.A. (Wisconsin) Associate Professor of Art
Kenneth R. Graves, M.F.A. (San Francisco Art Institute) Professor of Art
Grace Hampton, Ph.D. (Arizona State) Professor of Art and Art Education
Julie Heffernan, M.F.A. (Yale School of Art) Assistant Professor of Art
Marc Hessel, M.F.A. (Iowa) Associate Professor of Art
James Hopfensperger, M.A. (Illinois), M.F.A. (Michigan) Associate Professor of Art
John D. Kissick, M.F.A. (Cornell) Associate Professor of Art
Gerald Lang, M.F.A. (Minnesota) Professor of Art
Leslie Leupp, M.F.A. (Indiana) Professor of Art
Jerrold Maddox, M.F.A. (Indiana) Professor of Art
Richard Mayhew Professor Emeritus of Art
Sallie McCorkle, M.F.A. (Rutgers) Associate Professor of Art
Thomas McGovern, M.F.A. (Tyler School of Art) Associate Professor of Art
William J. McHale, D.Ed. (Penn State) Associate Professor Emeritus of Art
Stephen Porter, M.F.A. (Cornell) Professor of Art
Elizabeth Quakenbush, M.F.A. (Rochester Inst of Technology) Assistant Professor of Art
Jean Sanders, M.F.A. (Wisconsin, Madison) Assistant Professor of Art
Bruce R. Shobaken, M.F.A. (Minnesota) Professor Emeritus of Art
Lanny B. Sommese, M.F.A. (Illinois) Professor of Art
Christopher P. Staley, M.F.A. (Alfred) Associate Professor of Art
James E. Stephenson, Jr., M.A. (Montana) Professor of Art
Robert Yarber, M.F.A. (Louisiana State) Assistant Professor of Art

The M.A. program is planned to provide a broad range of experience and study in the visual arts. The M.F.A. program is planned to provide professional emphasis in a specific area of art.


Admission Requirements

Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.
Requirements for admission to the M.A. program include a broad undergraduate training in art and the presentation of a portfolio of the applicant's work.

Requirements for admission to the M.F.A. program include 36 credits in studio art with some indication of concentration in a chosen area and a statement of purpose concerning the professional aims of the candidate. A portfolio must be presented. A portfolio of 35 mm slides, rather than actual work, is requested. A selection of no fewer than twenty examples should be presented. The majority of these should be in the area of the applicant's interest, but the portfolio may also include a lesser emphasis in related areas.

All students accepted for graduate study in art who lack the adequate undergraduate courses or show deficiencies in some area will be required to take additional course work without degree credit.

Students with a 3.00 junior/senior grade-point average and with appropriate course backgrounds will be considered for admission. The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students. Exceptions to the minimum 3.00 average may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests.


Degree Requirements

A thesis in an area of specialization is required for the M.A. degree. A creative project and supporting monograph are required for the M.F.A. degree.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ART (ART)


411. SEMINAR IN CONTEMPORARY ART (3 per semester, maximum of 6)
417. ADVANCED METAL ARTS (4 per semester, maximum of 12)
421. DRAWING (4 per semester, maximum of 12)
422. ADVANCED FIGURE DRAWING (3)
430. ADVANCED SCULPTURE (4 per semester, maximum of 12)
445. HANDMADE PAPERMAKING (4 per semester, maximum of 12)
448. ADVANCED PRINTMAKING (4 per semester, maximum of 12)
450. ADVANCED PAINTING (4 per semester, maximum of 12)
455. ADVANCED PAINTING CRITIQUE (4 per semester, maximum of 8)
460. ADVANCED WATER-BASED MEDIA (4 per semester, maximum of 8)
470. TIME AND SEQUENCE (4)
471. SENIOR PROBLEMS (4)
473. GRAPHIC DESIGN SEMINAR A (3)
474. GRAPHIC DESIGN AND THE COMPUTER (4)
480. ADVANCED CERAMIC ARTS (4 per semester, maximum of 12)
481. CERAMIC MATERIALS AND GLAZE CALCULATION (3)
491. PHOTOGRAPHY AND OTHER DISCIPLINES (4 per semester, maximum of 12)
492. CREATIVE PROJECTS IN PHOTOGRAPHY (4 per semester, maximum of 8)
493. PHOTOGRAPHY: PORTFOLIO PREPARATION (1)
494. GROUP PROJECTS IN PHOTOGRAPHY (4 per semester, maximum of 8)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)
501. ART RESEARCH (2-6) Original study and practice in art relating to material, concept, or technique.

517. METAL ARTS (2-12) Individual problems in metal arts leading to a focus and development of a body of work representative of the artist.

530. ADVANCED SCULPTURE (3-12) Individual projects in sculpture leading to the development of a collection or body of work representative of the artist.

545. PRINTMAKING (2-12) Problems in printmaking leading to the development of a collection or body of work representative of the individual artist.

550. PAINTING (2-12) Individual problems in painting leading to the development of a collection or body of work representative of the artist.

570. DESIGN (2-12) Individual projects in design, with special emphasis on professional practice in specialized fields of graphic design.

580. CERAMICS (2-12) Experimental problems in ceramics leading to the development of a collection or body of work representative of the individual.

592. PHOTOGRAPHY (2-12) Individual projects in photography leading to the development of specialized work representative of the artist. Prerequisites: 12 credits in ART 492.
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)


ART EDUCATION (A ED)


BRENT G. WILSON, In Charge of Graduate Programs in Art Education
207 Arts Cottage
814-865-6570


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., D.Ed., M.S., M.Ed.
The Graduate Faculty
Patricia Amburgy, Ph.D. (Illinois) Associate Professor of Art Education
Albert A. Anderson, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Associate Professor of Art Education
Kenneth R. Beittel, D.Ed. (Penn State) Professor Emeritus of Art Education
Paul Bolin, Ph.D. (Oregon) Associate Professor of Art Education
Charles R. Garoian, Ph.D. (Stanford) Associate Professor of Art Education
Yvonne M. Gaudelius, Ph.D. (Penn State) Assistant Professor of Art Education and Women's Studies
Harlan E. Hoffa, D.Ed. (Penn State) Professor Emeritus of Art Education
Robert W. Ott, D.Ed. (Penn State) Professor of Art Education
David B. Van Dommelen, M.A. (Michigan State) Professor Emeritus of Art Education
Brent G. Wilson, Ph.D. (Ohio State) Professor of Art Education
Marjorie Wilson, D.Ed. (Penn State) Associate Professor of Art Education

This program helps prepare students for careers in public school art teaching, art supervision, college teaching, administration, or research.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) or from the Miller Analogies Test (MAT) are required for admission. The GRE testing program will change significantly in 1997. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

Students who seek admission to the graduate program must make formal application to the admissions committee of the Art Education program through the Graduate School. To be admitted without deficiencies, the student is expected to have completed either a baccalaureate degree in art education or a program considered by the admissions committee to provide an appropriate background for the application's degree objectives. Related programs include work in studio art, art history, art education, education, museum education, etc. Deficiencies may be made up by course work that is not counted as credit toward an advanced degree. Students pursuing graduate degrees may simultaneously take course work leading to teaching certification and art supervisory certification.

Students with a minimum 3.00 junior/senior grade-point average (on a 4.00 scale) and with appropriate course backgrounds will be considered for admission. The most qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students. Exceptions to the minimum 3.00 average may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests. Transcripts should indicate high attainment in appropriate academic and creative work. Letters of recommendation should attest to scholarship and ability to work independently. In addition to the above requirements, all applicants must submit an example of scholarly writing and a one- to two-page statement of (1) professional objectives; and (2) the areas in which research and creative work are planned. The statement should indicate how these objectives will be furthered by graduate study. For applications with a studio background, the inclusion of slides of creative work showing the depth and range of studio abilities is also recommended. Teachers may also submit slides of student works. Applicants planning to pursue studio work as a part of their graduate program must submit ten to fifteen slides of their creative work showing the depth and range of their studio abilities.


Master's Degree Requirements

A minimum of 30 graduate credits is required for the master's degree. Students must take a minimum of 15 credits in art education. Of those, M.Ed. and M.S. candidates are expected to complete the following 3-credit core: A ED 502, 505, 536, or 588; and A ED 590 (1 credit for each semester enrolled in course work). Students must take additional credits to total a minimum of 15 credits. All master's degree candidates must also complete 6 credit of foundational studies at the 400 level or above in areas such as art history, studio, philosophy, educational theory and policy, educational psychology, psychology, and anthropology. The remaining 9 credits are made up of elective studies.
Additional M.Ed. requirements. For M.Ed. candidates, 12 credits of course work must be at the 500 level or above. In addition to course work, M.Ed. candidates must write a substantial paper or present an exhibition in lieu of a thesis.
Additional M.S. requirements. For M.S. candidates, 18 credits of course work must be at the 500 level or above. M.S. candidates must prepare and orally defend a thesis. Requirements include 6 credits of thesis research within the 30 credits.


Doctoral Degree Requirements
Admission to candidacy. Once admitted to the doctoral program, all students must take a candidacy examination, which usually is given before the end of the first semester that the student is in residence. During the candidacy examination there is a review of (1) the student's professional r*sum*; (2) a statement regarding the general direction of the student's research interests and possible areas of thesis inquiry; (3) completed graduate courses; (4) proposed course of study for subsequent semesters; (5) selected graduate papers written by the student; (6) slides or original work if studio inquiry is part of the student's program of study.
English competence. At or before the candidacy exam, all candidates for doctoral degrees are required to demonstrate high-level competence in the use of the English language, including reading, writing, sand speaking, as part of the requirement for the doctoral program. Competency must be formally attested to by the student's committee before the comprehensive examination is held.
Course requirements. All doctoral students are expected to complete the following 3-credit core courses: A ED 502, 505, 536, 588; and A ED 590 (1 credit for each semester enrolled in course work.)
Additional D.Ed. requirements. All D.Ed. students must complete 90 credits of graduate work. (Master's degree work often fulfills part of this requirement.) In addition to the core courses listed above, D.Ed. students must complete 12 credits of course work in education, 12 credits of art studies outside the art education program (studio, art history, criticism, or aesthetics) and 2 additional courses in art education. Students seeking the D.Ed. are required to complete a minor in an acceptable field of study (for example, art, psychology, philosophy, or education). The minor consists of a minimum of 15 credits of course work.
Additional Ph.D. requirements. All Ph.D. students must complete at least 2 continuous semesters of residency after being admitted to candidacy. Although not required by the program, Ph.D. students are strongly encouraged to complete a minor area os study. A foreign language is not required of Ph.D. candidates. Instead, the inquiry and foreign language requirement for the Ph.D. is met through 12 credits of graduate-level course work in a related discipline as determined by the student's committee. All Ph.D. students are required to complete 18 credits of course work in art education. These 18 credits comprise the core courses plus two other courses in art education.
Comprehensive examination. Both Ph.D. and D.Ed. candidates are required to take a written and oral comprehensive examination once their course work is substantially completed. The examination, prepared by the student's doctoral committee, covers all phases of the student's doctoral work both in and outside the field of art education.

Doctoral dissertation. Both Ph.D. and D.Ed. candidates are required to complete a dissertation on a topic of research approved by the student's doctoral committee. The dissertation must be defended before the academic community at a final oral examination.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ART EDUCATION (A ED)


440. ARTS INSTITUTIONS (3)
486. CURRENT PROBLEMS IN ART EDUCATION (2-3)
489. ART EXPERIENCES WITH CHILDREN (3)
494. SCHOOLS AND MUSEUMS (3)
495. INTERNSHIP IN ART EXPERIENCES (15)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

502. INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH IN ART EDUCATION (3) Orientation in research methods; findings and designs related to the study of problems in art education.

505. FOUNDATIONS OF ART EDUCATION (3) An examination of classic theories in art education and their relevance to current developments.

535. ARTS ADMINISTRATION FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES (3) Responsibilities of arts administrators in schools and colleges: program, staff development, supervision, facilities, financing, community relations, governance, and report writing.

536. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN ART EDUCATION (3) Factors affecting art curriculum decisions, analysis, selection, organization, preparation of curriculum. Evaluation and sources of art curriculum improvement and innovation. Prerequisites: 6 credits of methods.

541. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN ART (3) Study of current theories of children's development in the creation and interpretation of art.

545. EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN ART EDUCATION (3) Study of theories of evaluation; application of judgmental criteria; analysis and construction of assessment instruments and scoring procedures. Prerequisites: A ED 490, 501.

560. INTERPRETATION THEORY IN ART EDUCATION (3) Study of theories of interpretation as they apply to works of art; the relationship of interpretation theory to the teaching of art.

570. ARTISTIC CREATION AND THEORIES OF KNOWING (3) A thematically organized course that makes connections between art-making and art as a way of knowing and inquiry.

580. AESTHETICS AND THE TEACHING OF ART (3) Study of the nature and value of aesthetics as part of art curricula in public schools and the relationship between aesthetics and culture.

588. HISTORY OF ART EDUCATION (3) Historical development of philosophies in art education in the United States and abroad.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
594. RESEARCH TOPICS (1-18)

595. RESEARCH IN ART EDUCATION (1-6) Independent research, under an adviser, to be terminated by a scholarly report proportionately comparable in quality to a master's thesis. Prerequisites: 15 credits in art education at the 400 and 500 levels, including A ED 589.
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


ART HISTORY (ART H)


CRAIG ZABEL, Interim Head of the Department
229 Arts II Building
814-865-6326


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.A.


The Graduate Faculty
Anthony Cutler, Ph.D. (Emory) Research Professor of Art History
Roland E. Fleischer, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins) Professor Emeritus of Art History
Hellmut Hager, Ph.D. (UniversitSt Bonn) Evan Pugh Professor of Art History
Heinz Henisch, Ph.D. (Reading) Research Professor Emeritus of the History of Photography
Carmen B. Lord, Ph.d. (Michigan) Assistant Professor of Art History
George Mauner, Ph.D. (Columbia) Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Art History
Jeanne Chenault Porter, Ph.D. (Michigan) Associate Professor of Art History
Susan C. Scott, Ph.D. (Penn State) Assistant Professor of Art History
Elizabeth B. Smith, Ph.D. (NYU, Institute of Fine Arts) Associate Professor of Art History
Elizabeth Walters, Ph.D. (NYU, Institute of Fine Arts) Associate Professor of Art History
Craig Zabel, Ph.D. (Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) Associate Professor of Art History

Graduate work is offered in the following areas: Ancient, Medieval, Byzantine, Renaissance, Baroque, Modern, and American art and architectural history.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Aptitude Test (verbal, quantitative, and analytical) are required for admission to the Department of Art History. Special emphasis will be given to the verbal part of the GRE scores. The GRE testing program will change significantly in 1997. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

Candidates with a 3.00 junior/senior grade-point average and a minimum of 21 credits in art history will be considered for admission to the master's program. Lacking these, a promising candidate may be accepted on condition that deficiencies be remedied, but without graduate degree credit. Applicants to teh Ph.D. program must have an M.A. in art history or a closely related field. The best-qualified applicants will be accepted up to the number of spaces that are available for new students.


Master's Degree Requirements

Candidates for the M.A. degree are required to complete a minimum total of 36 credits, including 6 at the 600 level (thesis research) and a master's thesis. At least 6 credits of course work must be in each of the four major areas of Western art historical study (Ancient, Byzantine-Medieval, Renaissance-Baroque, Modern), including at least 3 credits in each at the 500 level. In addition, candidates must demonstrate a reading knowledge of two foreign languages; one of these is German and the other either French or Italian. Competency in one language must be demonstrated before the end of one year of study. A reading knowledge of the second language must be demonstrated before the end of the second year. A master's examination must also be passed before completing the M.A. degree.


Doctoral Degree Requirements

Thirty additional credits, not including doctoral dissertation research, are required for the Ph.D. At least 24 of these credits must be in art history and 3 to 6 must be in a related area outside art history. At least 9 of the art history credits must be at the 500 level, exclusive of Art History 510 and 596. At the discretion of the candidate's doctoral committee, the candidate may be required to take additional specialized courses pertaining to his or her major area of study. The foreign language requirements for the doctorate are the same as those for the master's degree. For students who have received a master's degree from another university, a reading competency in German and in French or Italian must be demonstrated before the end of one year of study. For the Ph.D., a candidacy examination, a comprehensive examination, and a final oral examination must be successfully completed in addition to the student's doctoral dissertation.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ART HISTORY (ART H)


401. GREEK ART AND ARCHITECTURE (3-9)
402. THE ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPT (3)
404. THE ART OF COLONIAL AMERICA (3)
405. PIONEERS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE (3-6)
410. TASTE AND CRITICISM IN ART (3)
411. ROMAN ART (3-9)
412. THE GOTHIC CATHEDRAL (3)
414. ITALIAN BAROQUE PAINTING (3)
415. THE SKYSCRAPER (3)
416. AMERICAN PAINTING: 1876-1913 (3)
422. STUDIES IN MEDIEVAL SCULPTURE (3-9)
423. STUDIES IN ITALIAN RENAISSANCE ART (3-9)
424. MASTERS OF NORTHERN BAROQUE ART (3)
430. GOYA AND HIS TIMES (3)
432. PROBLEMS IN ICONOLOGY (3-9)
435. STUDIES IN MODERN ART (3-6)
442. LATE ANTIQUE AND EARLY CHRISTIAN ART (3)
450. THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY (3)
452. BYZANTINE ART (3)
454. SPANISH BAROQUE ART (3)
456. GIAN LORENZO BERNINI AND THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE FULL BAROQUE IN ROME (3)
458. ROMAN ROCOCO ARCHITECTURE AND THE DAWN OF NEOCLASSICISM (3)
464. FRENCH BAROQUE PAINTING (3)
470. AMERICAN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE SINCE 1940 (3)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

510. STUDIES IN ART HISTORY (3-6 per semester) Original investigation in art history, to be pursued independently or concurrently with course work in particular fields.
511. SEMINAR IN ANCIENT ART (3-12) Selected topics from the history of Greek and Roman art.
512. SEMINAR IN MEDIEVAL ART (3-12) Original research into problems dealing with the art of the Middle Ages.

513. SEMINAR IN RENAISSANCE ART (3-12) Investigations in the area of Renaissance art, centering around major masters and monuments.

514. SEMINAR IN BAROQUE ART (3-12) Investigations in the area of baroque art, centering around major masters and monuments.
515. SEMINAR IN MODERN ART (3-12) Lectures, readings, reports, and discussions in the field of modern art.

517. SEMINAR IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ART (3-12) Investigation into themes and problems dealing with eighteenth- century art.

520. SEMINAR IN SPANISH BAROQUE PAINTING (1-6) Specific problems in the history of seventeenth-century Spanish painting.

522. SEMINAR IN BYZANTINE ART (3-12) Specific iconographical and stylistic problems in Byzantine art and its relation to classical antiquity, the medieval West, and Islam.

525. SEMINAR IN MODERN ARCHITECTURE (3-12) Investigation into the works and problems of modern architecture as they relate to the culture of our times.
542. THE ILLUSTRATION OF THE APOCALYPSE (3-6) Studies in the illustration of the Apocalypse,
iconographical and stylistic, from the early Christian period through DYrer.

551. HISTORIOGRAPHY OF ART HISTORY (1-6) The relationship between the definition of, and approach to, art- historical problems from Vasari to the present.

552. PROBLEMS IN CONNOISSEURSHIP (3) A study of the problems of authenticating, attributing, and dating paintings and sculpture through internal evidence.
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)


ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS (ASTRO)


Peter I. Meszeros, Head of the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
525 Davey Laboratory
814-865-0418


Degrees Conferred: Ph.D., M.S.


The Graduate Faculty
David N. Burrows, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Research Associate; Associate Professor of Astronomy and
Astrophysics
Jane Charlton, Ph.D. (Chicago) Assistant Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Robin Ciardullo, Ph.D. (California, Los Angeles) Assistant Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
France A. C-rdova, Ph.D. (Cal. Tech.) Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Eric D. Feigelson, Ph.D. (Harvard) Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Gordon P. Garmire, Ph.D. (MIT) Evan Pugh Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Richard E. Griffiths, Ph.D. (University of Leicester) Adjunct Associate Professor of Astronomy and
Astrophysics
David P. Huenemoerder, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Adjunct Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Pablo Laguna, Ph.D. (Texas, Austin) Assistant Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Peter Meszeros, Ph.D. (California, Berkeley) Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
John A. Nousek, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Research Associate; Associate Professor of Astronomy and
Astrophysics
Lawrence W. Ramsey, Ph.D. (Indiana) Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Douglas H. Sampson, Ph.D. (Yale) Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Donald P. Schneider, Ph.D. (Cal. Tech.) Associate Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Peter D. Usher, Ph.D. (Harvard) Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Richard A. Wade, Ph.D. (Cal. Tech.) Associate Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Daniel W. Weedman, Ph.D. (Wisconsin) Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Aleksander Wolszczan, Ph.D. (Copernicus Univ., Poland) Professor of Astronomy and Astrophysics

Graduate instruction and research opportunities are available in both theoretical and observational astronomy and astrophysics. Currently active areas of theoretical research include atomic processes and radiative transfer, statistical astronomy, high-energy astrophysics (including theory of neutron stars, black holes, compact objects, accretion shock dynamics), and relativity and cosmology. Observational areas include spectroscopic, photometric, and radio frequency observations of quasars and galaxies; complementary radio and X-ray studies of active galaxies and young stars; high-resolution spectroscopy of early- and late-type stars, peculiar stars, variable stars, and stellar activity phenomena; satellite observations of ultraviolet and X- ray spectra of stars and galactic sources; X-ray data from HEAO-1, Einstein, and ROSAT observations of galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources and the diffuse X-ray background; sounding rocket and satellite instrumentation of X-ray and EUV telescopes and detectors; and electronic and computer instrumentation.

The center of observational research facilities is the Penn State Black Moshannon Observatory, located twenty- five miles northwest of the University Park Campus. Basic instruments are a telescope of 1.6m aperture with a CCD imaging system and a variety of spectrographs with CCD detectors. Supplementing the local facilities, national facilities such as Kitt Peak, Cerro Tololo, Sacramento Peak, and the NRAO Very Large Array, as well as NASA and international satellite observatories, and various national supercomputing centers, are used extensively by Penn State faculty and graduate students.

Penn State is a major partner in the William P. HobbyDRobert E. Eberly Telescope, a large-aperture optical telescope of unique design that is under construction in West Texas.


Admission Requirements

Scores from the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), including the Physics subject test, are required for admission. Requirements listed here are in addition to general Graduate School requirements stated in the GENERAL INFORMATION section of the Graduate Bulletin.

Applicants with a bachelor's degree in astronomy or an allied field such as physics, mathematics, or geophysics are given equal consideration for admission. Opportunity to make up possible undergraduate deficiencies is provided. A grade-point average of 3.00 or better for junior-senior courses in astronomy and related subjects is necessary for consideration for admission. Exceptions to these minimum requirements may be made for students with special backgrounds, abilities, and interests.


Degree Requirements
A nonthesis option is available for the M.S. degree.

Because modern astronomy has very close ties with mathematics, physics, and engineering, the program required of a doctoral candidate normally includes some courses in these related fields, in addition to those in astronomy. Proficiency in French, German, or Russian is required. A knowledge of computer programming may be substituted for the foreign language requirement.


Student Aid

Graduate assistantships and other forms of student aid are described in the STUDENT AID section of the Graduate Bulletin.


ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS (ASTRO)


440. INTRODUCTION TO ASTROPHYSICS (3)
451. ASTRONOMICAL TECHNIQUES (2)
452. ADVANCED ASTRONOMY LABORATORY (1)
480. NEBULAE, GALAXIES, AND COSMOLOGY (3)
485. INTRODUCTION TO HIGH-ENERGY ASTRONOMY (3)
492. (AERSP, E E) SPACE ASTRONOMY AND INTRODUCTION TO SPACE SCIENCE (3)
496. INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18)
497. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)

501. FUNDAMENTAL ASTRONOMY (3) Fundamental concepts, tools and techniques, and essential results in all branches of modern observational astronomy except planetary.

502. FUNDAMENTAL ASTROPHYSICS (3) Fundamental tools and results of modern astrophysical theory. Gravitation; gas dynamics; radiation processes; radiative transfer; atomic structure and transitions.

504. GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC ASTRONOMY (3) Physical cosmology and distance scale; dynamics of star clusters and galaxies; photometric and chemical evolution of galaxies and the universe. Prerequisites: ASTRO 501, 502.

510. ASTROPHYSICS (3) The theory of atomic structure and spectra and the theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics with applications to astrophysical plasmas. Prerequisite: PHYS 410.

513. OBSERVATIONAL TECHNIQUES IN ASTRONOMY (3) Theoretical and practical aspects of modern observational astrophysics. Photometry, spectroscopy, stellar classification, detectors, space astronomy, and basic information theory. Prerequisite: ASTRO 440.

515. ASTROPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS (1) Statistical methods and data-handling techniques as used in astronomy. Least squares fitting; non-linear regression; data filtering; non-parametric statistics. Prerequisite: ASTRO 440, STAT 501, or equivalent.

528. RADIATION PROCESSES IN ASTROPHYSICS (3) General processes of importance in high-energy, radio, and UV- optical-IR astronomy. Emphasis on physical principles of continuum processes. Prerequisite: PHYS 400.

530. THEORY OF STELLAR ATMOSPHERES (3) Theory of photospheric structure, radiative processes, and line- formation in the outer layers of stars, and interpretation of stellar spectra. Prerequisite: ASTRO 510.

534. STELLAR STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION (3) Theory of physical processes, structure, and evolutionary changes of stars; nature of intrinsic variable stars; the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Prerequisite: ASTRO 510 or PHYS 561.

540. GALACTIC ASTRONOMY (3) Phenomenological investigations of the interstellar medium and star formation; the structure, dynamics, and evolution of our and other normal galaxies. Prerequisite: ASTRO 440.

542. GASEOUS NEBULAE AND INTERSTELLAR MATTER (3) Theory and observations of galactic nebulae and interstellar medium, and problems related to the formation of stars. Prerequisite: ASTRO 510.

550. HIGH-ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS (3) Theory and observations of X-rays and gamma rays from stars, black holes, neutron stars, supernova remnants, and extragalactic objects. Prerequisites: PHYS 400; PHYS 410 or 454.

582. RADIO ASTRONOMY (3) Methods of radio astronomy and its contribution to modern astrophysics. Galactic and extragalactic sources, using line, continuum, and interferometric observations. Prerequisite: ASTRO 440.

583. GALAXIES, QUASARS, AND COSMOLOGY (3) Structure and population of the Milky Way galaxy, properties of galaxies, properties and nature of quasars, distance scale, and deacceleration parameter. Prerequisite: ASTRO 582.
590. COLLOQUIUM (1-3)
596. INDIVIDUAL STUDIES (1-9)
597. SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9)