Integrative Arts 10
A Media Time Line

"You never know when an old calendar might come in handy!
Sure, it's not 1985 right now, but who knows what tomorrow will bring?"
-Homer Simpson

This Media Time Line compilation is to give you a historical perspective of the topics covered in class.

BCE CE 1000 1500 1700 1800 1820 1860 1880 1900 1910 1930 1950 1970 1990
3500: In Sumer. pictographs of accounts written on clay tablets.
2600: Scribes employed in Egypt.
2400: In India, engraved seals identify the writer.
2200: Date of oldest existing document written on papyrus.
1500: Phoenician alphabet.
1400: Oldest record of writing in China, on bones.
1270: Syrian scholar compiles an encyclopedia.
900: China has an organized postal service for government use.
775: Greeks develop a phonetic alphabet, written from left to right.
530: In Greece, a library.
525-456 Aeschylus authors 90 plays, of which, 7 still exist most notably, Agamemnon
500: Greek version of the telegraph: trumpets, drums, shouting, beacon fires, smoke signals, mirrors.
500: Persia has a form of pony express.
500: Chinese scholars write on bamboo with reeds dipped in pigment.
450-385 Aristophanes authors many comedies, 11 are still in existence. Used satire as his main weapon against war. Considered to be the father of Burlesque.
400: Chinese write on silk as well as wood, bamboo.
350: Aristotle (384-322) writes the Poetics - analysis of dramatic structure
200: Books written on parchment and vellum.
59: Julius Caesar orders postings of Acta Diurna.
100: Roman couriers carry government mail across the empire.
105: T'sai Lun invents paper.
175: Chinese classics are carved in stone which will later be used for rubbings.
180: In China, an elementary Zoetrope.
250: Paper use spreads to central Asia.
350: In Egypt, parchment book of Psalms bound in wood covers.
450: Ink on seals is stamped on paper in China. This is true printing.
600: Books printed in China.
765: Picture books printed in Japan.
875: Amazed travelers to China see toilet paper.
950: Paper use spreads west to Spain.
950: Folded books appear in China in place of rolls.
950: Bored women in a Chinese harem invent playing cards.
1000: Mayas in Yucatan, Mexico, make writing paper from tree bark.
1035: Japanese use waste paper to make new paper.
1049: Pi Sheng fabricates movable type, using clay.
1116: Chinese sew pages to make stitched books.
1147: Crusader taken prisoner returns with papermaking art, according to a legend.
1200: European monasteries communicate by letter system.
1200: University of Paris starts messenger service.
1241: In Korea, metal type.
1282: In Italy, watermarks are added to paper.
1298: Marco Polo describes use of paper money in China.
1300: Wooden type found in central Asia.
1305: Taxis family begins private postal service in Europe.
1309: Paper is used in England.
1392: Koreans have a type foundry to produce bronze characters.
1423: Europeans begin Chinese method of block printing.
1450: A few newsletters begin circulating in Europe.
1451: Johnannes Gutenberg uses a press to print an old German poem.
1452: Metal plates are used in printing.
1453: Gutenberg prints the 42-line Bible.
1464: King of France establishes postal system.
1490: Printing of books on paper becomes more common in Europe.
1495: A paper mill is established in England.
1500: 16th century - Painters and engravers use a camera obscura investigated by Leonardo Da Vinci (It. 1452– 1519)
1500: Arithmetic + and - symbols are used in Europe.
1500: By now approximately 35,000 books have been printed, some 10 million copies.
1500: commedia dell'arte started in 16th century Italy. Comedy Troupe of character actors improvise dialogue over a standardized plot. Used costume and developed many character types still familliar to us today.
1500: Punch and Judy - 16th century puppet show derrived from stock characters of commedia dell'arte. Spread across western civilization in the 17th - 19th centuries. Plot usually involves Punch besting the devil.
1520: Spectacles balance on the noses of Europe's educated.
1533: A postmaster in England.
1545: Garamond designs his typeface.
1550: Wallpaper brought to Europe from China by traders.
1560: In Italy, the portable camera obscura allows precise tracing of an image.
1560: Legalized, regulated private postal systems grow in Europe.
1564-1616 Shakespeare Writes his Plays. Cornerstone of all western drama and comedy. Command of the language and characterization are keys concepts to understanding his works.
1565: The pencil.
1609: First regularly published newspaper appears in Germany.
1627: France introduces registered mail.
1639: First printing press in the American colonies.
1640: Kirchner, a German Jesuit, builds a magic lantern.
1689: Newspapers are printed, at first as unfolded "broadsides."
1698: Public library opens in Charleston, SC
1704: A newspaper in Boston prints advertising.
1710: German engraver Le Blon develops three-color printing.
1714: Henry Mill receives patent in England for a typewriter.
1719: Reaumur proposes using wood to make paper.
1725: Scottish printer develops stereotyping system.
1727: Schulze begins science of photochemistry.
1732: In Philadelphia, Ben Franklin starts a circulating library.
1733 - 1969 Industrial Revolution- Mechanization of Industy leads to increase in leisure time, disposable income, urbanization. The era comes to an end with it's crowning acheivement, the Apollo Program landing Americans on the moon in 1969 kicking off the computer age.
1755: Regular mail ship runs between England and the colonies.
1770: The eraser.
1774: Swedish chemist invents a future paper whitener.
1775: Continental Congress authorizes Post Office; Ben Franklin first Postmaster General.
1777: Neo-classicism - Post colonial era revival of Greek classicism with several artistic liberties and certain austerities. Lead to the concept of the Well-Made play and Greek influenced art and architecture. Ie. Southern plantation homes and Washington D.C. in general.
1780: Steel pen points begin to replace quill feathers.
1785: Stagecoaches carry the mail between towns in U.S.
1790: In England the hydraulic press is invented.
1792: Mechanical semaphore signaler built in France.
1792: In Britain, postal money orders.
1794: First letter carriers appear on American city streets.
1794: Panorama, forerunner of movie theaters, opens.
1794: Signaling system connects Paris and Lille.
1798: Senefelder in Germany invents lithography.
1800: Letter takes 20 days to reach Savannah from Portland, Maine.
1804: In Germany, lithography is invented.
1807: Camera lucida improves image tracing.
1808: Turri of Italy builds a typewriter for a blind contessa.
1810: An electro-chemical telegraph is constructed in Germany.
1810: Postal services consolidated under uniform private contracts.
1814: In England, a steam-powered rotary press prints The Times.
1816: Niépce captures image with 8-hour exposure.
1818: In Sweden, Berzelius isolates selenium; its electric conductivity reacts to light.
1819: Invention of what would come to be known as Baseball socializes the masses and gives an immagrant nation "the Great American Past-time".
1819: Napier builds a rotary printing press.
1820: Arithmometer, forerunner of the calculator.
1821: In England, Wheatstone reproduces sound.
1823: Babbage builds a section of a calculating machine.
1823: In England, Ronalds builds a telegraph in his garden; no one is interested.
1825: The Thaumatrope, devised by Dr. John Ayrton Paris (GB), blurs the images on two sides of a round card into a single image when spun by an attached string - this device displays the phenomenon called "Persistence of Vision"
1827: Niépce makes a true photograph.
1827: In London, Wheatstone constructs a microphone.
1829: Daguerre joins Niépce to pursue photographic inventions.
1829: Burt gets the first U.S. patent for a typewriter.
1832: Phenakistoscope in Belgium and Stroboscope in Austria point to motion
1833: A penny buys a New York newspaper, opening a mass market.
1833: Joseph Plateau (Belg., 1801- 83) first writes about the phenomenon of persistence of vision
1833: In Germany, a telegraph running nearly two miles.
1834: Babbage conceives the analytical engine, forerunner of the computer.
1935: Bennett publishes the first of his penny press editions.
1837: Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre (Fr., 1789- 1851) invents the daguerreotype, which fixes images on a silver-covered copper plate
1837: Wheatstone and Cooke patent an electric telegraph in England.
1837: Morse exhibits an electric telegraph in the U.S.
1837: Pitman publishes a book on shorthand in England.
1837: Daguerre cuts photo exposure time to 20 minutes.
1838: In England, Wheatstone's Stereoscope shows pictures in 3-D.
1838: Morse exhibits an electric telegraph in the U.S.
1838: Daguerre-Niépce method begins photography craze.
1839: Fox Talbot in England produces photographs.
1839: In Russia, Jacobi invents electrotyping, the duplicating of printing plates.
1839: Electricity runs a printing press.
1839: Fox Talbot in England prints photographs from negatives.
1840’s-1920’s Minstrel Shows arise in America as antecedent to variety show.
1841: The advertising agency is born.
1842: Illustrated London News appears.
1842: Another use for paper: the Christmas card.
1843: In the U.S., the photographic enlarger.
1843: Ada, Lady Lovelace publishes her Notes explaining a computer.
1844: Morse's telegraph connects Washington and Baltimore.
1845: Postal reform bill lowers rates and regulates domestic and international service.
1845: English Channel cable.
1845: The typewriter ribbon.
1847: A Philadelphia newspaper rolls off a rotary printing press.
1847: First use of telegraph as business tool.
1847: In England, Bakewell constructs a "copying telegraph."
1848: Forerunner of the Associated Press is founded in New York.
1849: The photographic slide.
1851: The Erie railroad depends on the telegraph.
1851: Cable is laid across the English Channel.
1851: In England, Talbot takes a flash photograph at 1/100,000 second exposure.
1852: Postage stamps are widely used.
1853: Envelopes made by paper folding machine.
1854: Telegraph used in Crimean War.
1854: Bourseul in France builds an experimental telephone.
1854: Curved stereotype plate obviates column rules; wide ads soon.
1856: Machine folds newspapers, paper for books.
1857: A machine to set type is demonstrated.
1857: In France, Scott's phonautograph is a forerunner of Edison's phonograph.
1858: First effort at transatlantic telegraph service fails.
1858: Eraser is fitted to the end of a pencil.
1858: An aerial photograph is taken.
1859: Camera gets a wide-angled lens.
1860’s-1940’s American Burlesque Shows
1861: Telegraph brings Pony Express to an abrupt end.
1861: Oliver Wendell Holmes invents stereoscope.
1862: In Italy, Caselli sends a drawing over a wire.
1862: in U.S., paper money.
1863: Large U.S. cities get free home delivery of mail.
1864: In Virginia, wireless electromagnetic waves are transmitted 14 miles.
1865: Atlantic cable ties Europe and U.S. for instant communication.
1865 - 1877 Southern States under reconstruction after Civil War.
1866: Western Union dominates U.S. wires.
1868: Writing machine is called a "Type-Writer"; so is the typist.
1869: Carbon paper is invented.
1869: Color photography, using the subtractive method.
1869: From Austria, postcards.
1870’s-1940’s Vaudeville and Variety Shows
1871: Halftone process allows newspaper printing of pictures.
1872: Simultaneous transmission from both ends of a telegraph wire.
1873: U.S. postcard debuts; costs one penny.
1873: Illustrated daily newspaper appears in New York.
1873: Maxwell publishes theory of radio waves. 1873: First color photographs.
1873: Typewriters get the QWERTY pseudo-scientific keyboard.
1873: In Ireland, May uses selenium to send a signal through the Atlantic cable.
1873 Eadweard James Muybridge (GB, 1830 – 1904) contrives a photographic apparatus to analyze the motion of a trotting horse
1874: Universal Postal Union formed.
1875: Edison invents the mimeograph.
1875: In the U.S., Carey designs a selenium mosaic to transmit a picture.
1876: Bell invents the telephone.
1877: In France, Charles Cros invents a phonograph.
1877: In America, Edison also invents a phonograph, the "Talking Machine" - Marketed as the Phonograph in the 1890’s as a business tool
1878: Muybridge publishes his sequences of stop-action photographs of horses, taken by setting up a battery of twelve (later expanded to twenty-four, then forty-eight) cameras
1878: Cathode ray tube is invented by Crookes, English chemist.
1878: The dynamic microphone is invented in the U.S. and Germany.
1878: Telephone directories are issued.
1878: Full page newspaper ads.
1878: In France, praxinoscope, an optical toy, a step toward movies.
1878: Hughes invents the microphone.
1878: Dry-plate photography.
1878 Thomas Alva Edison (US, 1847 – 1931) invents the phonograph
1879: Benday process aids newspaper production of maps, drawings.
1879 Photographers use gelatin plates sensitized with bromide of silver
1879: Ferrier works on roll film and coats a flexible gelatin strip with a gelatin-bromide emulsion
1879: Muybridge's Zoogyroscope (an improved Zoetrope) reconstitutes motion captured by his stop-action photographs
1880: First photos in newspapers, using halftones.
1880: Edison invents the electric light.
1880: Business offices begin to look modern.
1881: Tony Pastor- "Father of Vaudeville" opens ‘Pastor House’
1882: In England, the first Wirephotos.
1883: Edison stumbles onto "Edison effect"; basis of broadcast tubes.
1884: In Germany, Nipkow scanning disc, early version of television.
1884: People can now make long distance phone calls.
1884: Electric tabulator is introduced.
1885: Dictating machines are bought for offices. 1885: Eastman makes coated photo printing paper.
1885: Trains are delivering newspapers daily.
1885: Keith and Albee establish Vaudeville Houses in Philadelphia and Boston
1886: Graphophone's wax cylinder and sapphire stylus improve sound.
1887: Celluloid film; it will replace glass plate photography.
1887: Berliner gets music from a flat disc stamped out by machine.
1888: "Kodak" box camera makes picture taking simple.
1888: Heinrich Hertz proves the existence of radio waves.
1888: The coin-operated public telephone.
1888: Edison's phonograph is manufactured for sale to the public.
1888 Edison and William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (US, 1860 – 1937) build an optical cylindrical phonograph
1889 George Eastman (US, 1854 – 1932) develops and markets flexible cellulose nitrate roll film
1889: Edison and Dickson order batches of film from Eastman and perforate the strips
1889: Herman Hollerith counts the population with punch cards.
1889: Strowger, Kansas City undertaker, invents automatic telephone exchange.
1890: Martin Beck takes city culture to the country in first touring Vaudeville Show
1890: A.B. Dick markets the mimeograph.
1890: Typewriters are in common use in offices. 1890: In England, Friese-Greene builds the kinematograph camera and projector.
1890: In France, Branly's coherer conducts radio waves.
1891: Georges Demeny (Fr., 1850 – 1917) invents the Phonoscope, designed to resynthesize lip movement for deaf-mutes
Edison and Dickson patent a motion-picture camera (Kinetograph) and an individual viewing machine (Kinetoscope)
1891: Large press prints and folds 90,000 4-page papers an hour.
1891: Telephoto lens is attached to the camera.
1891: Edison's assistant, Dickson, builds the Kinetograph motion picture camera.
1892: Edison and Dickson invent the peep-show Kinetoscope.
1892 Edison, Dickson, and Eugene Lauste (Fr., 1856 – 1935) work on the Kinetophone. an early combination kinetoscope and phonograph
1892: Leon Bouly (Fr., 1872,– 1932,) patents the Cinematographe, a camera that both analyzes and resynthesizes motion
1892: 4-color rotary press.
1893: Dickson builds a motion picture studio in New Jersey.
1893: Edison's Black Maria, the world's first motion-picture studio, is built
Addressograph joins the office machinery.
1894: Marconi invents wireless telegraphy.
1894: Box making machines give impetus to packaging industry.
1894: Berliner's flat phonograph disc competes with the cylinder.
1895: Louis Lumiere invents a new feed mechanism; his chief engineer, Charles Moisson, is asked to build the prototype of a machine to shoot, print, and project motion pictures
1895: France's Lumiere brothers build a portable movie camera.
1895: Paris audience sees movies projected.
1895: Dial telephones go into Milwaukee's city hall.
1896: Underwood model permits typists to see what they are typing.
1896: Electric power is used to run a paper mill. 1896: In Britain, the motion picture projector is manufactured.
1896: X-ray photography.
1896: First Vitascope screening for a paying audience at Koster 5c Bial's Music Hall, New York
1896: Auguste Baron (Fr., 1855 – 1938) invents a process for making sound pictures
1896: Leon Gaumont (Fr., i864 – I946) comes out with his 60-mm Demeny
1896: Biograph camera built - Screening of first Biograph films
1896: Georges Melies (Fr., 1861 – 1918) shoots his first films, including The Vanishing Lady
1897: A 60mm Joly-Normandin projector causes a fire, killing 140
1897: Melies builds a studio at Montreuil-sous-Bois
1897: Secretary of Designer and film-maker Leon Gaumont, Alice Guy, begins work on her films
1897: J Stuart Blackton and Albert E. Smith form the Vitagraph Company
1897: General Electric creates a publicity department.
1898: Photographs taken by artificial light.
1898: Edison begins the "War of the Patents" with other film makers in America
1898: US Battleship Maine blows up in Havana harbor, triggering the Spanish-American War and inspiring the first historical reconstruction films
1898: Multiple-shot (Trick) films by Melies and Robert Paul introduced
1898: New York State passes a law against misleading advertising.
1899: The loudspeaker.
1899: Sound is recorded magnetically by Poulsen of Denmark.
1899: American Marconi Company incorporated; forerunner of RCA.
1899 Melies releases The Dreyfus Affair
1899: Newsreel-type films of action, both live and reenacted, shot of Transvaal during the Boer War 1900 The Player Piano allows people across the country to hear the same compositions
1900: Kodak Brownie makes photography cheaper and simpler.
1900: Pupin's loading coil reduces telephone voice distortion.
1901: Sale of phonograph disc made of hard resinous shellac.
1901: First electric typewriter, the Blickensderfer.
1901: Guglielmo Marconi "Father of Radio" develops the wireless telegraph and transmits message in Morse code across the Atlantic. Nobel prize winner in 1909.
1902: Etched zinc engravings start to replace hand-cut wood blocks.
1902: U.S. Navy installs radio telephones aboard ships.
1902: Photoelectric scanning can send and receive a picture.
1902: Trans-Pacific telephone cable connects Canada and Australia.
1902: Melies's A Trip to the Moon
1903: Porter's The Great Train Robbery creates demand for fiction movies.
1903: Technical improvements in radio, telegraph, phonograph, movies and printing.
1903: London Daily Mirror illustrates only with photographs.
1904: A telephone answering machine is invented.
1904: Fleming invents the diode to improve radio communication.
1904: Offset lithography becomes a commercial reality.
1904: A photograph is transmitted by wire in Germany.
1904: Hine photographs America's underclass.
1904: The comic book.
1904 Newsreel-type films of action, both live and reconstructed, during the Russo-Japanese War
Chase films increasingly popular
1904: The double-sided phonograph disc.
1905: Stencil coloring of films begins
1905: Gaumont Studios built in Paris
1905: Rescued by Rover by Cecil Hepworth (GB, i873 – I9$3)
1905: First Italian fiction film, La Presa di Roma, by Filoteo Alberini (It., I86$ – I937)
1905: In Pittsburgh the first nickelodeon opens.
1905: Photography, printing, and post combine in the year's craze, picture postcards.
1905: In France, Pathe colors black and white films by machine.
1905: The juke box; 24 choices.
1906: Smith patents Kinemacolor, a two-color filmmaking process
1906: Oskar Messter (Ger., i866 – i9p3) develops a system for making sound films
1906: Development of Gaumont's Chronophone 1906: The Vitagraph Company of America opens a new studio in Brooklyn; the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company opens a West Coast office in Los Angeles
1906: Blackton's Humorous Phases of Funny Faces
1906: In Britain, new process colors books cheaply.
1906: A program of voice and music is broadcast in the U.S.
1906: Lee de Forest invents the three-element vacuum tube.
1906: Dunwoody and Pickard build a crystal-and-cat's-whisker radio.
1906: An animated cartoon film is produced.
1906: An experimental sound-on-film motion picture.
1906: Strowger invents automatic dial telephone switching.
1907: Bell and Howell develop a film projection system.
1907: Lumiere brothers invent still color photography process.
1907: DeForest begins regular radio music broadcasts.
1907: In Russia, Rosing develops theory of television.
1908: In U.S., Smith introduces true color motion pictures.
1909: Radio distress signal saves 1,700 lives after ships collide.
1909: First broadcast talk; the subject: women's suffrage.
1911: Efforts are made to bring sound to motion pictures.
1911: Rotogravure aids magazine production of photos.
1912: U.S. passes law to control radio stations.
1912: Motorized movie cameras replace hand cranks.
1912: Armstrong perfects audion tube allowing for transmitter receivers.
1912: Feedback and heterodyne systems usher in modern radio.
1912: Victor, Colombia and Edison were the only record disk manufacturers, by 1919 there were almost 200 companies with a combined output of 2 Million records, by 1921 100 million records had been sold
1913: The portable phonograph is manufactured.
1913: Type composing machines roll out of the factory.
1914: Dance crazes such as the "Grizzly Bear", "Fox Trot", and "the Tango" sweep America
1914-1918 World War I rages in Europe. Amateur radio enthusiasts broadcast voice and music.
1914: A better triode vacuum tube improves radio reception.
1914: Radio message is sent to an airplane.
1914: In Germany, the 35mm still camera, a Leica.
1914: In the U.S., Goddard begins rocket experiments.
1914: First transcontinental telephone call.
1915: Wireless radio service connects U.S. and Japan.
1915: Radio-telephone carries speech across the Atlantic.
1915: Birth of a Nation sets new movie standards.
1915: The electric loudspeaker.
1916: David Sarnoff envisions radio as "a household utility."
1916: Cameras get optical rangefinders.
1916: Radios get tuners.
1917: Photocomposition begins.
1917: Frank Conrad builds a radio station, later KDKA.
1917: Condenser microphone aids broadcasting, recording.
1919: People can now dial telephone numbers themselves.
1919: Shortwave radio is invented.
1919: Flip-flop circuit invented; will help computers to count.
1920: Around this time radio transforms from a wireless telegraph service for communication between ships dominated by relatively few companies such as Radio Company of America (RCA), General Electric (GE), Westinghouse and AT&T to a commercially viable public medium. Companies see radio as an advertising medium and quickly establish stations as a "public service." The first company to start regularly scheduled broadcasts was Westinghouse. Their transmissions from the first professional radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh were largely advertisements for consumer end radios.
1920: The first broadcasting stations are opened.
1920: Sound recording is done electrically.
1920: KDKA in Pittsburgh broadcasts first scheduled programs.
1921: Quartz crystals keep radio signals from wandering.
1921: The word "robot" enters the language.
1921: Western Union begins wirephoto service. 1922: A commercial is broadcast, $100 for ten minutes.
1922: Technicolor introduces two-color process for movies.
1922: Germany's UFA produces a film with an optical sound track.
1922: First 3-D movie, requires spectacles with one red and one green lens.
1922: Singers desert phonograph horn mouths for acoustic studios.
1922: Nanook of the North, the first documentary.
1923: Zworykin's electronic iconoscope camera tube and kinescope display tube.
1923: People on one ship can talk to people on another.
1923: Ribbon microphone becomes the studio standard.
1923: A picture, broken into dots, is sent by wire.
1923: 16 mm nonflammable film makes its debut.
1923: Kodak introduces home movie equipment.
1923: Neon advertising signs.
1924: Low tech achievement: notebooks get spiral bindings.
1924: The Eveready Hour is the first sponsored radio program.
1924: At KDKA, Conrad sets up a short-wave radio transmitter.
1924: Pictures are transmitted over telephone lines.
1924: Two and a half million radio sets in the U.S.
1925: Commercial picture facsimile radio service across the U.S.
1925: All-electric phonograph is built.
1925: A moving image, the blades of a model windmill, is telecast.
1925: From France, a wide-screen film.
1926: Commercial picture facsimile radio service across the Atlantic.
1926: Baird demonstrates an electro-mechanical TV system.
1926: Some radios get automatic volume control, a mixed blessing.
1926: The Book-of-the-Month Club.
1926: In U.S., first 16mm movie is shot.
1926: Goddard launches liquid-fuel rocket.
1926: Permanent radio network, NBC, is formed.
1926: Bell Telephone Labs transmit film by television.
1927: NBC begins two radio networks; CBS formed.
1927: Farnsworth assembles a complete electronic TV system.
1927: Jolson's "The Jazz Singer" is the first popular "talkie."
1927: Movietone offers newsreels in sound.
1927: U.S. Radio Act declares public ownership of the airwaves.
1927: Technicolor.
1927: Negative feedback makes hi-fi possible.
1928: Baird demonstrates color TV on electro-mechanical system.
1928: The teletype machine makes its debut.
1928: Television sets are put in three homes, programming begins.
1928: Baird invents a video disc to record television.
1928: In an experiment, television crosses the Atlantic.
1928: In Schenectady, NY, the first scheduled television broadcasts.
1928: Steamboat Willie introduces Mickey Mouse.
1928: A motion picture is shown in color.
1928: Times Square gets moving headlines in electric lights.
1928: IBM adopts the 80-column punched card.
1929: Experiments begin on electronic color television.
1929: Telegraph ticker sends 500 characters per minute.
1929: Ship passengers can phone relatives ashore.
1929: Brokers watch stock prices on an automated electric board.
1929: Something else new: the car radio.
1929: In Germany, magnetic sound recording on plastic tape.
1929: Television studio is built in London.
1929: Bell Lab transmits stills in color by mechanical scanning.
1929: Zworykin demonstrates cathode-ray tube "kinescope" receiver, 60 scan lines.
1930: Photo flashbulbs replace dangerous flash powder.
1930: "Golden Age" of radio begins in U.S.
1930: Lowell Thomas begins first regular network newscast.
1930: TVs based on British mechanical system roll off factory line.
1930: Bush's differential analyzer introduces the computer.
1930: AT&T tries the picture telephone.
1931: Commercial teletype service.
1931: Electronic TV broadcasts in Los Angeles and Moscow.
1931: Exposures meters go on sale to photographers.
1931: NBC experimentally doubles transmission to 120-line screen.
1932: Disney adopts a three-color Technicolor process for cartoons.
1932: Kodak introduces 8 mm film for home movies.
1932: The "Times" of London uses its new Times Roman typeface.
1932: Stereophonic sound in a motion picture, "Napoleon."
1932: Zoom lens is invented, but a practical model is 21 years off.
1932: The light meter.
1932: NBC and CBS allow prices to be mentioned in commercials.
1933: Armstrong invents FM, but its real future is 20 years off.
1933: Multiple-flash sports photography.
1933: Singing telegrams.
1933: Phonograph records go stereo.
1934: Drive-in movie theater opens in New Jersey.
1934: Associated Press starts wirephoto service.
1934: In Germany, a mobile television truck roams the streets.
1934: In Scotland, teletypesetting sets type by phone line.
1934: Three-color Technicolor used in live action film.
1934: The US Government writes Communications Act of 1934 Established the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to regulate radio frequency use.
1934: Half of the homes in the U.S. have radios. 1934: Mutual Radio Network begins operations.
1935: German single lens reflex roll film camera synchronized for flash bulbs.
1935: Also in Germany, audio tape recorders go on sale.
1935: IBM's electric typewriter comes off the assembly line.
1935: The Penguin paperback book sells for the price of 10 cigarettes.
1935: All-electronic VHF television comes out of the lab.
1935: Eastman-Kodak develops Kodachrome color film.
1935: Nielsen's Audimeter tracks radio audiences.
1936: Berlin Olympics are televised closed circuit.
1936: Bell Labs invents a voice recognition machine.
1936: Kodachrome film sharpens color photography.
1936: Co-axial cable connects New York to Philadelphia.
1936: Alan Turing's "On Computable Numbers" describes a general purpose computer.
1937: Stibitz of Bell Labs invents the electrical digital calculator.
1937: Pulse Code Modulation points the way to digital transmission.
1937: NBC sends mobile TV truck onto New York streets.
1937: A recording, the Hindenburg crash, is broadcast coast to coast.
1937: Carlson invents the photocopier.
1937: Snow White is the first feature-length cartoon.
1938: Strobe lighting.
1938: Baird demonstrates live TV in color.
1938: Broadcasts can be taped and edited.
1938: Two brothers named Biro invent the ball-point pen in Argentina.
1938: CBS "World News Roundup" ushers in modern newscasting.
1938: DuMont markets electronic television receiver for the home.
1938: Radio drama, "War of the Worlds," causes national panic.
1939: New York World's Fair shows television to public.
1939: Regular TV broadcasts begin.
1939: Air mail service across the Atlantic.
1939: Many firsts: sports coverage, variety show, feature film, etc.
1940: Fantasia introduces stereo sound to American public.
1941: Stereo is installed in a Moscow movie theater.
1941: FCC sets U.S. TV standards.
1941: CBS and NBC start commercial transmission; WW II intervenes.
1941: Goldmark at CBS experiments with electronic color TV.
1941: Microwave transmission.
1941: Zuse's Z3 is the first computer controlled by software.
1942: Atanasoff, Berry build the first electronic digital computer.
1942: Kodacolor process produces the color print.
1943: Repeaters on phone lines quiet long distance call noise.
1944: Harvard's Mark I, first digital computer, put in service.
1944: IBM offers a typewriter with proportional spacing.
1944: NBC presents first U.S. network newscast, a curiosity.
1945: Clarke envisions geo-synchronous communication satellites.
1945: It is estimated that 14,000 products are made from paper.
1946: Jukeboxes go into mass production.
1946: Pennsylvania's ENIAC heralds the modern electronic computer.
1946: Automobile radio telephones connect to telephone network.
1946: French engineers build a phototypesetting machine.
1947: Hungarian engineer in England invents holography.
1947: The transistor is invented, will replace vacuum tubes.
1947: The zoom lens covers baseball's world series for TV.
1947: Holography invented.
1948: The LP record arrives on a vinyl disk.
1948: Shannon and Weaver of Bell Labs propound information theory.
1948: Land's Polaroid camera prints pictures in a minute.
1948: Hollywood switches to nonflammable film.
1948: Public clamor for television begins; FCC freezes new licenses.
1948: Airplane re-broadcasts TV signal across nine states.
1949: Network TV in U.S.
1949: RCA offers the 45 rpm record.
1949: Community Antenna Television, forerunner to cable.
1949: Whirlwind at MIT is the first real time computer.
1949: Magnetic core computer memory is invented.
1950: Regular color television transmission.
1950: Vidicon camera tube improves television picture.
1950: Changeable typewriter typefaces in use.
1950: A.C. Nielsen's Audimeters track viewer watching.
1951: One and a half million TV sets in U.S., a tenfold jump in one year.
1951: Cinerama will briefly dazzle with a wide, curved screen and three projectors.
1951: Computers are sold commercially.
1951: Still camera get built-in flash units.
1951: Coaxial cable reaches coast to coast.
1952: 3-D movies offer thrills to the audience.
1952: Bing Crosby's company tests video recording.
1952: Wide-screen Cinerama appears; other systems soon follow.
1952: Sony offers a miniature transistor radio.
1952: EDVAC takes computer technology a giant leap forward.
1952: Univac projects the winner of the presidential election on CBS.
1952: Zenith proposes pay-TV system using punched cards.
1952: Sony offers a miniature transistor radio.
1953: NTSC color standard adopted for television.
1953: CATV system uses microwave to bring in distant signals.
1954: U.S.S.R. launches Sputnik.
1954: Radio sets in the world now outnumber newspapers printed daily.
1954: Regular color TV broadcasts begin.
1954: Sporting events are broadcast live in color.
1954: Radio sets in the world now outnumber daily newspapers.
1954: Transistor radios are sold.
1955: Tests begin to communicate via fiber optics.
1955: Music is recorded on tape in stereo.
1956: Ampex builds a practical videotape recorder.
1956: Bell tests the picture phone.
1956: First transatlantic telephone calls by cable.
1957: Soviet Union's Sputnik sends signals from space.
1957: FORTRAN becomes the first high-level language.
1957: A surgical operation is televised.
1957: First book to be entirely phototypeset is offset printed.
1958: Videotape delivers color.
1958: Stereo recording is introduced.
1958: Data moves over regular phone circuits.
1958: Broadcast bounced off rocket, pre-satellite communication.
1958: The laser.
1958: Cable carries FM radio stations.
1959: Local announcements, weather data and local ads go on cable.
1959: The microchip is invented.
1959: Xerox manufactures a plain paper copier. 1959: Bell Labs experiments with artificial intelligence.
1959: French SECAM and German PAL systems introduced.
1960: Echo I, a U.S. balloon in orbit, reflects radio signals to Earth.
1960: In Rhode Island, an electronic, automated post office.
1960: A movie gets Smell-O-Vision, but the public just sniffs.
1960: Zenith tests subscription TV; unsuccessful.
1961: Boxing match test shows potential of pay-TV.
1961: FCC approves FM stereo broadcasting; spurs FM development.
1961: Bell Labs tests communication by light waves.
1961: IBM introduces the "golf ball" typewriter.
1961: Letraset makes headlines simple.
1961: The time-sharing computer is developed.
1962: Cable companies import distant signals.
1962: FCC requires UHF tuners on tv sets.
1962: The minicomputer arrives.
1962: Comsat created to launch, operate global system.
1962: Telstar satellite transmits an image across the Atlantic.
1963: From Holland comes the audio cassette.
1963: CBS and NBC TV newscasts expand to 30 minutes in color.
1963: Polaroid camera instant photography adds color.
1963: Communications satellite is placed in geo-synchronous orbit.
1963: TV news "comes of age" in reporting JFK assassination.
1964: Olympic Games in Tokyo telecast live globally by satellite.
1964: Touch Tone telephones and Picturephone service.
1964: From Japan, the videotape recorder for home use.
1964: Russian scientists bounce a signal off Jupiter.
1964: Intelsat, international satellite organization, is formed.
1965: Electronic phone exchange gives customers extra services.
1965: Satellites begin domestic TV distribution in Soviet Union.
1965: Computer time-sharing becomes popular. 1965: Color news film.
1965: Communications satellite Early Bird (Intelsat I) orbits above the Atlantic.
1965: Kodak offers Super 8 film for home movies.
1965: Cartridge audio tapes go on sale for a few years (8-track).
1965: Most broadcasts are in color.
1965: FCC rules bring structure to cable television.
1965: Solid-state equipment spreads through the cable industry.
1966: Fiber optic cable multiplies communication channels.
1966: Xerox sells the Telecopier, a fax machine. 1967: Dolby eliminates audio hiss.
1967: Pre-recorded movies on videotape sold for home TV sets.
1967: Approx. 200 million telephones in the world, half in U.S.
1968: Intelsat completes global communications satellite loop.
1968: Approx. 200 million TV sets in the world, 78 million in U.S.
1968: The RAM microchip reaches the market.
1969: Astronauts send live photographs from the moon.
1969: Sony's U-Matic puts videotape on a cassette.
1970: Postal Reform Bill makes U.S. Postal Service a government corporation.
1970: In Germany, a videodisc is demonstrated. 1970: U.S. Post Office and Western Union offer Mailgrams.
1970: The computer floppy disc is an instant success.
1971: Intel builds the microprocessor, "a computer on a chip."
1971: Wang 1200 is the first word processor.
1972: HBO starts pay-TV service for cable.
1972: New FCC rules lead to community access channels.
1972: Polaroid camera can focus by itself.
1972: Digital television comes out of the lab.
1972: The BBC offers "Ceefax," two-way cable information system.
1972: "Open Skies": any U.S. firm can have communication satellites.
1972: Landsat I, "eye-in-the-sky" satellite, is launched.
1972: Sony's Port-a-Pak, a portable video recorder.
1972: "Pong" starts the video game craze.
1973: The microcomputer is born in France.
1973: IBM's Selectric typewriter is now "self-correcting."
1974: In England, the BBC transmits Teletext data to TV sets.
1974: Electronic News Gathering, or ENG.
1974: "Teacher-in-the-Sky" satellite begins educational mission.
1975: The microcomputer, in kit form, reaches the U.S. home market.
1975: Sony's Betamax and JVC's VHS battle for public acceptance.
1975: "Thrilla' from Manila"; substantial original cable programming.
1976: Apple I.
1976: Ted Turner delivers programming nationwide by satellite.
1976: Still cameras are controlled by microprocessors.
1977: Columbus, Ohio, residents try 2-way cable experiment, QUBE.
1978: From Konica, the point-and-shoot camera.
1978: PBS goes to satellite for delivery, abandoning telephone lines.
1979: Speech recognition machine has a vocabulary of 1,000 words.
1979: Videotext provides data by television on command.
1979: From Holland comes the digital videodisc read by laser.
1979: Computerized laser printing is a boon to Chinese printers.
1980: Sony Walkman tape player starts a fad.
1980: In France, a holographic film shows a gull flying.
1980: Intelsat V relays 12,000 phone calls, 2 color TV channels.
1980: Public International electronic fax service, Intelpost, begins.
1980: Atlanta gets first fiber optics system.
1980: CNN 24-hour news channel.
1980: Addressable converters pinpoint individual homes.
1981: Hologram technology improves, now in video games.
1981: The IBM PC.
1981: The laptop computer is introduced.
1981: The first mouse pointing device.
1982: From Japan, a camera with electronic picture storage, no film.
1982: USA Today type set in regional plants by satellite command.
1982: Kodak camera uses film on a disc cassette.
1983: Lasers and plastics improve newspaper production.
1983: Time names the computer as "Man of the Year."
1983: American videotext service starts; fails in three years.
1984: Portable compact disc player arrives.
1984: National Geographic puts a hologram on its cover.
1984: A television set can be worn on the wrist. 1984: Japanese introduce high quality facsmile.
1984: Camera and tape deck combine in the camcorder.
1984: Apple Macintosh, IBM PC AT.
1984: The 32-bit microprocessor.
1984: The one megabyte memory chip.
1984: Conus relays news feeds for stations on Ku-Band satellites.
1985: Digital image processing for editing stills bit by bit.
1985: CD-ROM can put 270,000 pages of text on a CD.
1985: U.S. TV networks begin satellite distribution to affiliates.
1985: At Expo, a Sony TV screen measures 40x25 meters.
1985: Sony builds a radio the size of a credit card.
1985: In Japan, 3-D television; no spectacles needed.
1985: Pay-per-view channels open for business. 1986: HBO scrambles its signals.
1987: Half of all U.S. homes with TV are on cable.
1987: Government deregulates cable industry.
1988: Government brochure mailed to 107 million addresses.
1989: Tiananmen Square demonstrates power of media to inform the world.
1989: Pacific Link fiber optic cable opens, can carry 40,000 phone calls.
1990: IBM sells Selectric, a sign of the typewriter's passing.
1990: Videodisc returns in a new laser form.
1991: Beauty and the Beast, a cartoon, Oscar nominee as best picture.
1991: Live TV news switching between world capitals during Gulf War looks simple. 1991: Denver viewers can order movies at home from list of more than 1,000 titles.
1991: Moviegoers astonished by computer morphing in Terminator 2.
1991: Baby Bells get government permission to offer information services.
1991: Collapse of anti-Gorbachev plot aided by global system the Internet.
1991: More than 4 billion cassette tape rentals in U.S. alone.
1991: 3 out of 4 U.S. homes own VCRs; fastest selling domestic appliance in history.
1992: Cable TV revenues reach $22 billion.
1992: At least 50 U.S. cities have competing cable services.
1992: After President Bush speaks, 25 million viewers try to phone in their opinions.
1993: Dinosaurs roam the earth in Jurassic Park.
1993: Demand begins for "V-chip" to block out violent television programs.
1993: 1 in 3 Americans does some work at home instead of driving to work.
1994: After 25 years, U.S. government privatizes Internet management.
1994: Rolling Stones concert goes to 200 workstations worldwide on Internet
1994: To reduce Western influence, a dozen nations ban or restrict satellite dishes.
1995: CD-ROM disk can carry a full-length feature film.
1995: Sony demonstrates flat TV set.
1995: DBS feeds are offered nationwide.
1995: Major U.S. dailies create national on-line newspaper network.
1995: Lamar Alexander announces presidential candidacy via the Internet.
Compilation of time lines,
Authored by Irving Fang, Emmanuelle Toulette, and Gregory J. Golda

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